What is the exact meaning of cross cutting and overlapping social differences? (I want meaning not their origins result etc. Just meaning)
Social differences can take different forms in different societies. They can take 2 forms -
1) Overlapping social differences or social divisions - These social differences are said to happen when a community sees itself as better than the other communities, or they enjoy some special priveledges and statuses in the society. The more powerful and majority community tries to supress the weaker and minority community. These differences are also known as social divisions. Take the example of USA. The blacks in USA tend to be poor, suppressed and discriminated. The whites tend to be more powerful and rich.
2) Cross cutting social differences or simply social differences - These social differences are said to happen when two or more communities exists in a society, but they do not see themselves as the better one. The communities tend to live in peace, and the differences do not affect the relations between the comunities. Take the example of Northern Ireland and the Netherlands. The population of both the countries have 2 major communities - the Roman Catholics and the Protestants. While the Catholics are weaker and poorer in Northern Ireland, in Netherlands both the communities are equal. This has led to social conflicts in Norther Ireland, but peace in the Netherlands. Here the example of Northern Ireland is that of social division, and that of the Netherlands is of cross cutting social difference.
Hope this helps!!