what is step wise stability constant and overall stability constant ? how are these two constants related ?

The formation of a complex proceeds by the stepwise addition of ligand to the metal.A number of successive equilibria can be formulated as follows:


Here, N is the maximum coordination number of the metal.

K1, K2 ……KN are stepwise stability constants.


The overall stability constant is the equilibrium for the total reaction which can be represented as follows:

Here Kt is the overall stability constant.


Relation between overall stability constant and stepwise stability constant:

Kt = K1 x K2 x K3 x ……..KN


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