Long answere type questions

1. what do you understand by the term rural development ? what are the key issues of rural development ?

2. explain the type of credit taken by farmers for different purposes. bring out the significance and implications of non-institutional credit .

3. show how co-operative credit societies play a crucial role in providing credit in rural areas .

4. what is the role of NABARD .

5.what kind of facilities does a farmer need to market his produce ? what support is being provided by the government in this area ?

6. what do you mean by agricultural diversification ? why is it required ?

7. what is organic farming ? why should we adopt organic farming ?

8.what are the advantages of organic farming ? can you think of a possible disadvantage of this system of farming ?

9. defend or refute the following statments :

(1) yields in organic farming are lower than in chemical farming.

(2) there is big money in organic farming.

Solution 1

You can find the answer to the concerned question at the below mentioned link.


Solution 4

NABARD is an apex institution that undertakes matters concerning policy, planning and operations in the field of credit for agriculture and other economic activities in the rural areas in India. Its main functions are explained below:

  1. It serves as an apex agency for the financial institutions providing credit for various developmental activities in the rural areas.

  2. It takes appropriate steps or measures to improve the credit delivery system that includes monitoring, formulation, restructuring of institutions, and training of man power.

  3. It coordinates the rural financing activities of all credit institutions engaged in the developmental work at grass root level.

  4. It provides re-finances to those institutions which finances the rural sector. In addition, it also undertakes monitoring and evaluation of the projects refinanced by it.

Solution 6

Diversification of agriculture has two aspects- Diversification of crops and Diversification of Production Activity.

Diversification of crops- Diversification of crops implies that a variety of crops are produced rather than specialising in the production of one single crop. In other words, it implies a shift from single-cropping system to multiple-cropping system.

Diversification of production Activity- Diversification of production activity implies a shift from the farm activities to the non-farm activities. In other words, it refers to the shift of employment towards alternative non-farm employment activities such as the agro-processing industries, food processing industries, horticulture, fisheries, livestock farming, etc.

The following points highlight the significance of Diversification in Productive Activity

1.Non-Farm Employment opportunities: A substantial portion of Indian farming is dependent on the vagaries of monsoon. Therefore, there is greater menace in depending on farming alone. Hence, the need for the non-farm employment opportunities is to be explored so that the farmers can earn from other alternative non-farm occupations.

2. Helpful Under Seasonal Changes: The agricultural employment opportunities are mostly concentrated in the Kharif season. But during the Rabi season, due to the lack of sound irrigation facilities framers do not find gainful employment opportunities. Therefore, the dearth of opportunities in agriculture sector should be compensated in non-farm sectors.

3. Opening Up of New Prospects: Agriculture being over crowded has insufficient employment opportunities in comparison to the proportion of population engaged in it. Therefore, the prospects of the non-farm sectors should be opened up in the rural areas to provide job opportunities in the already crowded agricultural sector. This reduces the excess burden on agriculture by minimising disguised unemployment.

4. Eradication of Poverty: The non-farm sector provides employment and income opportunities for the whole year as compared to the farming occupation. So, it helps to eradicate poverty from the rural areas

Solution 7

Organic farming refers to a system of farming that employs organic inputs for cultivation of crops. As against the conventional farming techniques, organic farming discards the use of chemical fertilisers and other toxic pesticides. Instead it uses organic inputs such as animal manure and compost for cultivation. This type of farming is practiced to produce poison and chemical-free food for the consumers while simultaneously maintaining the fertility of the soil. The following are the major features of organic farming.

1. It discards the use of chemical fertilisers and pesticides in the cultivation of crops and plantations and instead uses green manure and biological pest control methods.

2. It uses on farm inputs such as animal dung, crop residues as nutrients for the crops.

3. It focuses on maintaining the fertility of soil and maintaining the ecological balance.

(For the second part of the concerned question please refer to the link provided in the next question)

Solution 8

You can find the answer to the concerned question at the below mentioned link.


Due to paucity of time we cannot solve the rest of your queries. But, we can help you in the questions which you think are really difficult. Please mention the same and go through our study material and revision notes to solve the remaining ones on your own.

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Rural development is a comprehensive term which refer to focus on the areas which are lagging behind a rural economy .

key issues 1. Indebtedness , poverty , unemployment, illiterate , land reforms, improper infrastructure e.t.c..

please elobarate the key issues with the help of NCERT textbook

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  Merits of organic farming 1. Less use of expensive fertilizer , Eco friendly, labour intensive thus employment,good earnings becos organic products are a demand in world market,organic products are healthier than chemical farming products.

demerits 1 .  People are not aware , less yield compared to chemical farming , no choice off season crops.

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