Is cooperation always voluntary or is it enforced? If enforced, is it sanctions or is the strength of norms that ensure cooperation? Discuss with examples.
According to Karl Marx’s conflict perspective, cooperation is enforced and not voluntary. The enforcement of cooperation takes place because of the existence of the class system. The strength of norms or the ‘social power’ compels the workers to work because of the alien force which exists outside them. It is caused by the division of labour. For this, Marx gave an example of a worker in a factory, who undergoes the process of ‘alienation’ and loses control over the products of his/her labour because he/she follows the monotonous routine every time. Also, compared to the conditions of a factory worker who works in a cooperative environment with a worker who works for himself, it is found that the independent worker is happier.