How did britishers defeat marathas
There have been three wars between the Britishers and the Marathas, which have been explained as under:First Anglo-Maratha War (1775-1782 AD) fought between the British East India Company and Maratha Empire.
The First Anglo Maratha War was initiated with the Battle of Wadgaon. Maratha army commanded by the chief Tukajirao Holkar and the general Mahadji Sindhe encountered the British army at the outskirts of Pune. Mahadji Sindhe entrapped the British army near Talegaon valleys and then Maratha cavalry harassed the enemy from all sides. They also attacked the British supply base at Khopoli. The British finally surrendered on middle of January 1779 and signed the treaty of Wadegaon, which compelled the Bombay Government to release all the territories acquired by British since 1775.
However, Warren Hastings, the British Governor- General in Bengal, rejected the Treaty of Wadegaon and sent a large army under the leadership of Colonel Goddard. Goddard captured Ahmedabad in February 1779 and Bassein in December 1780. Another army from Bengal led by Captain Popham that captured Gwalior in august of 1780. Hastings sent another force after Mahadji Shinde. In February 1781, the British army under General Camac was able defeat Shinde finally at Sipri.
The First Anglo Maratha War ended with theTreaty of Salbai signed between the Peshwa and the British on 17th May 1782. This treaty recognized young Sawai Madavrao as Peshwa and Raghunathrao as the pensioner.
Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803-1805 AD)
The second Maratha war was fought at the time of Lord Wellesley.
The Scindia rulers of Gwalior and the Bhonsle rulers of Nagpur were asked by the English to withdraw their troops to the north of the Narmada River but they refused and it led to war. In September 1803 AD, Scindia forces lost to Lord Gerard Lake at Delhi and to Lord Arthur Wellesley at Assaye. A few months later in November, Lake defeated another Scindia force at Laswari, followed by Wellesley's victory over Bhonsle forces at Argaon. On 17 December 1803, Raghoji II Bhonsle of Nagpur signed the Treaty of Deogaon in Orissa with the British after the Battle of Laswari and gave up the province of Cuttack of Orissa. On 30 December 1803, the Daulat Scindia signed theTreaty of Surji-Anjangaon with the British after the Battle of Assaye and Battle of Argaon and ceded to the British Ganges-Jumna Doab, the Delhi-Agra region, parts of Bundelkhand, Broach, some districts of Gujarat, fort of Ahmmadnagar.
British turned their attention towards Yashwant Rao Holkar of Indore but Holkar proved more than a match for the British. Yashwant Rao Holkar army compelled the British to make peace. Wellesley was recalled from India and the Company made peace with the Holkar inJanuary 1806 by the Treaty of Rajghat. Holkar got back most of his territories. The Holkar Maharajas retained control and overlordship over much of Rajasthan.
Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817-1818 AD)
The Third Anglo-Maratha War was the final and decisive conflict between the British East India Company and the Maratha Empire in India. The war left the Company in control of most of India. It began with an invasion of the Maratha territory by British East India Company troops. The troops were led by the Governor General Hastings and he was supported by a force under General Thomas Hislop.
The Peshwa Baji Rao II's forces, followed by those of Mudhoji II Bhonsle of NagpurandMalharrao Holkar III of Indore, rose against the British company. Daulatrao Shinde of Gwalior, remained neutral. British victories were swift, resulting in the breakup of the Maratha Empire and the loss of Maratha independence. ThePeshwa was defeated in the battles of Khadki and Koregaon and. Several minor battles were fought by the Peshwa's forces to prevent his capture. Bhonsle was defeated in the battle of Sitabaldi and Holkar in the battle of Mahidpur.
Most of the territory of Peshwa Baji Rao II was annexed and became part of the Bombay Presidency. The defeat of the Bhonsle and Holkar also resulted in the acquisition of the Maratha kingdoms of Nagpur and Indore by the British. Along with Gwalior from Shinde and Jhansi from the Peshwa.