Discusssome of the social and ecological costs of the kind of developmentwhich has been pursued in most countries.

Socialcosts of development

  • A large number of people have been displaced from their homes and localities due to industrialisation.

  • Displacement causes loss of livelihood and increased impoverishment along with destruction of local culture and community life.

  • Displacement of rural agricultural communities has resulted in increased number of urban and rural poor and has brought them into the category of marginalised people.

  • It is responsible for many struggles and social disorganisation.

Ecologicalcosts of development

  • The present model of development is dependent upon increasing use of energy and is a major cause for environmental degradation.

  • Consumption of fossil fuels to meet energy requirements is also a major cause of pollution as well as depletion of natural resources.

  • Global warming has increased due to emission of pollutant gases from industries.

  • Icebergs of polar regions are melting due to global warming. This would cause flooding and submergence of low lying areas like Bangladesh and Maldives.

  • Developmental projects have resulted in deforestation, which has created the problem of green house effect, scarcity of firewood, medicinal herbs and food, affecting poor people.

  • Rivers and ponds are dry up and level of ground water has decreased.

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