General Science Solutions Solutions for Class 8 Science Chapter 2 Health And Diseases are provided here with simple step-by-step explanations. These solutions for Health And Diseases are extremely popular among Class 8 students for Science Health And Diseases Solutions come handy for quickly completing your homework and preparing for exams. All questions and answers from the General Science Solutions Book of Class 8 Science Chapter 2 are provided here for you for free. You will also love the ad-free experience on Meritnation’s General Science Solutions Solutions. All General Science Solutions Solutions for class Class 8 Science are prepared by experts and are 100% accurate.

Page No 13:

Question 1:

Distinguish between- Infections and non infections diseases.
 

Answer:


Infectious diseases
 
Non infectious diseases

1. It can be passed from one person to another.
 
It cannot be passed from one person to another.

2. It is caused by a pathogen.
 
It is caused due to internal reasons like metabolic or genetic reasons.

3. They are classified as communicable disease.
 
They are classified as non communicable disease.
4. eg: diarrhoea, cholera, tuberculosis
eg: diabetes, hypertension, cancer
 

Page No 13:

Question 2:

Identity the odd term.
A. Malaria, hepatitis, elephantiasis, dengue.
B. Plague, AIDS, cholera, T.B.

Answer:

A. Malaria, hepatitis, elephantiasis, dengue- Hepatitis is the odd one out because it is a type of viral infection while the rest of three are spread through the bite of mosquitoes.
B. Plague, AIDS, cholera, T.B. - AIDS is the odd one out because it is a viral disease while the rest of them are bacterial diseases.

Page No 13:

Question 3:

Answer in one to two sentences.
A. Which are various media of spreading the infectious diseases ?
B. Give the names of five non-infections diseases other than given in the lesson.
C. Which are the main reasons of diabetes and heart diseases ?

 

Answer:

a. Infectious diseases can spread through air, water, blood to blood contact and animal vectors.


b. Non infectious diseases- arthiritis, cataract, osteoprosis, multiple sclerosis and Alzeimer's.

c. Reasons of heart diseases include smoking, alcoholism, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, lack of physical exercise, mental stress, anxiety and improper diet.

Reasons of diabetes include obesity, lack of physical exercise, mental stress, improper diet and hereditary.

Page No 13:

Question 4:

What can be achieved / can be prevented ?
A. Drinking boiled and filtered water.
B. Avoiding smoking and alcoholism.
C. Regular balanced diet and exercise.
D. Proper checking of blood before blood donation.

Answer:

a. Boiling and filteration are methods of purifying water which makes it suitable for consumption. Drinking boiled and filtered water can help in prevention of water borne diseases such as typhoid, cholera, etc. Most of the water borne diseases are transmitted through the consumption of contaminated water in some or the other form. 

b. Smoking and alcoholism are two of the devils of our health and society. Smoking leads to various kinds of respratory disorders and hinders the process of respiration. It can lead to diseases such as lung cancer. On the other hand, consumption of alcohol, effects the nervous as well as the digestive system of our body. Avoiding alcohol and smoking can protect indivisuals from various diseases and can help in living a healthy and stress free life.

c. Balanced diet and exercise are key to good health. Both of these in combination helps our systems to function properly, helps maintain a healthy weight, reduces body fat, provides the body with energy, promotes good sleep and makes us feel better about ourselves.

d. Proper checking of blood before blood donation is required to check that the blood to be transferred is safe in all respects. There are chances of transfer of infectious diseases form the donor, if he/she is suffering from any such diseases. Another important factor for checking of blood before donation is to check that the donor is not anemic (does not have anemia). 

Page No 13:

Question 5:

Read the passage and answer the questions.
Master 'X' is a 3 year old child. He is toiler with his family in a slum. Public toilet is present near his house. His father is drunkard. His mother does not know the importance of balanced diet.
A. Master 'X' can suffer from which different possible diseases in above conditions ?
B. How will you help him and hsi family in this situation ?
C. Which disease can occur to the father o master 'X' ?
 

Answer:

a. Since, the house of master X is near the toilet and he lives in a slum area, the chances are that there is less cleaniliness in that area. There are chances that he may suffer from diseases like salmonellosis, shigellosis, diarrhoea, trachoma, gastroenteritis, giardiasis, tapeworm infection and threadworm infection.

b. In this case, the famliy needs to be made aware about cleanliness in and around their houses. There is a need to explain them the importance of balanced diet for them and their child. Since, the father is a drukyard, he needs counselling and treatment to get rid of the habit of alcoholism.

c. The father of master X is a drunkyard which means he might suffer from diseases such as heart diseases, liver cirrhosis, ulcers and gastrointestinal ptoblems, brain damage etc.

Page No 13:

Question 6:

Give the preventive measures of following diseases.
A. Dengue
B. Cancer
C. AIDS

Answer:

 a. Dengue is a mosquito borne disease which is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes which grow in clean and stagnant water. The breeding of this mosquito can be prevented by adopting the following steps:

  • larve-eating fishes should be introduced in ponds
  • collection and storage of water should always be done in closed vessels
  • potted plants should have proper drainage to avoid collection of water in the pots
  • pesticides should be used against mosquitoes as and when required

b. Preventive measures for cancer:
  • have a healthy diet
  • exercise regularly
  • avoid smoking and alcohol
  • go for regular health checkups

c. Preventive measures for AIDS are:
  • avoid sexual contact with unknown persons
  • screening of blood before transfusion
  • avoid sharing of needles

Page No 13:

Question 7:

Explain the importance.
A. Balanced diet.
B. Physical exercise / Yogasanas.

Answer:

a. A balanced diet is a diet containing all nutrients (carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, etc.) in the right quantities. A balanced diet helps us in various ways:

  • provides us with important nutrients required for the growth of body
  • helps us to stay fit and free from diseases
  • helps in strengthening the immune system
  • helps our systems to function properly
  • helps maintain a healthy weight
  • reduces body fat
  • provides the body with energy
  • promotes good sleep and makes us feel better about ourselves

b. Importance of exercise and yogasanas are:
  • reduces the risk of heart attack
  • helps in managing weight better
  • helps in maintaining blood cholesterol level
  • lowers the risk of type 2 diabetes and some cancers
  • helps in maintaining the blood pressure levels
  • helps in attaining stronger bones, muscles and joints and lowers the risk of osteoporosis
  • boosts the energy levels, makes you feel relaxed

Page No 13:

Question 8:

Make a list.
A. Viral diseases.
B. Bacterial diseases.
C. Diseases spread through insects.
D. Hereditary diseases.
 

Answer:


Type of Disease
 
Example

Viral
 
 Measels, Mumps, Swine flu, Chicken pox

Bacterial
 
Tuberculosis, Diptheria, Tetanus, Cholera, Typhoid

Insects
 
Dengue, Malaria, Plague
Hereditary
Diabetes, Hypertension, Cancer
 

Page No 13:

Question 9:

Write the information on modern diagnostics and treatments of cancer.
 

Answer:

Diagnostics of cancer:

There are many techniques whiich are used in the diagnosis of cancer and their application depends upon the type of cancer. Biopsy, histopathological studies of bone and blood, radiography (use of X-rays), CT (computed tomography) and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) are used in diagnosis of cancer. Radiography, CT and MRI are the modern techniques used in cancer diagnosis.
Computed tomography uses X-rays to generate a three-dimensional image of the internals of an object. MRI uses strong magnetic fields and non-ionising radiations to accurately detect pathological and physiological changes in the living tissue.

Treatment of cancer:

Cancer is treated using 3 major approaches depending on the type of cancer. These 3 approaches are- surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In surgery, the tumor is removed surgically from its site and can be used in specific cases only. Radiotherapy is a technique in which the cancer cells are irradiated with radiations taking care of the normal tissues which surround the cancer cells.
Chemotherapy uses different kinds of drugs for the treatment of cancer. These chemotherapeutic drugs are specific for particular tumors and have side effects such as hair loss, anemia, etc.
Most of the cancers are treated by the combination of these 3 approaches.

Page No 13:

Question 10:

Enlist the names and composition of the medicines present at your home.

Answer:

The following medicines are found in our houses:

Paracip- Paracetamol/Acetaminophen
Digene-  Dried Aluminium Hydroxide, Magnesium Aluminium Silicate Hydrate, Magnesium Hydroxide, Simethicone
Volini- Diclofenac diethylamine BP, Linseed Oil BP (Oleum Lini), Methyl salicylate, Menthol IP, Benzyl Alcohol IP.
Vomikind- Ondansetron



View NCERT Solutions for all chapters of Class 8