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The p-Block Elements

Group 15 elements:

  • The valence shell electronic configuration is ns2 np3.
  • Nitrogen differs in chemical properties from other elements of the group due to its small size, high electronegativity, high ionisation enthalpy and non-availability of d-orbitals.
  • They exhibit two oxidation states, +3 and +5. Heavier elements exhibit mainly +3 oxidation state due to inert pair effect.

The main use of nitrogen is in the manufacture of ammonia


  • On a small scale, ammonia is obtained from ammonium salts, which decompose when treated with caustic soda or lime. It forms metal salt, water, and ammonia gas.

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