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Board Paper of Class 12-Science 2012 Physics (SET 1) - Solutions

General Instructions:
(i) All questions are compulsory.
(ii) There are 30 questions in total. Question Nos. 1 to 8 are very short answer type questions and carry one mark each.
(iii) Question Nos. 9 to 18 carry two marks each, question 19 to 27 carry three marks each and question 28 to 30 carry five marks each.
(iii) There is no overall choice. However, an internal choice has been provided in one question of two marks; one question of three marks and all three questions of five marks each. You have to attempt only one of the choice in such questions.
(iv) Use of calculators is not permitted.

  • Question 1

    Why is the potential inside a hollow spherical charged conductor constant and has the same value of as on its surface?


  • Question 2

    A magnetic needle, free to rotate in a vertical plane, orients itself vertically at a certain place on the Earth. What are the values of (i) Horizontal component of Earth’s magnetic field and (ii) angle of dip at this place?


  • Question 3

    The closed loop (PQRS) of wire is moved into a uniform magnetic field at right angles to the plane of the paper as shown in the figure, Predict the direction of the induced current in the loop.


  • Question 4

    Name the electromagnetic waves which (i) maintain the Earth’s warmth and (ii) are used in aircraft navigation.


  • Question 5

    How does focal length of a lens change when red light incident on it is replaced by violet light? Give reason for your answer.


  • Question 6

    Write the relationship between the size of a nucleus and its mass number (A).


  • Question 7

    Show on a graph the variation of the de Broglie wavelength (λ) associated with an electron, with the square root of accelerating potential (V).


  • Question 8

    Define dipole moment of an electric dipole. Is it a scalar or a vector?


  • Question 9

    A conductor of length ‘l’ is connected to a dc source of potential ‘V’. If the length of the conductor is tripled by gradually stretching it, keeping ‘V’ constant, how will (i) drift speed of electrons and (ii) resistance of the conductor be affected? Justify your answer.


  • Question 10

    Two students ‘X’ and ‘Y’ perform an experiment on potentiometer separately using the circuit given below:

    Keeping other parameters unchanged, how will the position of the null point be affected if

    (i) ‘X’ increases the value of resistance R in the set-up by keeping the key K1 closed and the Key K2 opens?

    (ii) ‘Y’ decreases the value of resistance S in the set-up, while the key K2 remains open and they K1 closed?



  • Question 11

    A particle of charge ‘q’ and mass ‘m’ is moving with velocity . It is subjected to a uniform magnetic field directed perpendicular to its velocity. Show that it describes a circular path. Write the expression for its radius.


  • Question 12

    Calculate the quality factor of a series LCR circuit with L = 2.0 H, C = 2μF and R = 10 Ω. Mention the significance of quality factor in LCR circuit.


  • Question 13

    Explain briefly how electromagnetic waves are produced by an oscillating charge. How is the frequency of the em waves produced related to that of the oscillating charge?


  • Question 14

    In a given sample, two radioisotopes, A and B, are initially present in the ration of 1 : 4. The half lives of A and B are respectively 100 years and 50 years. Find the time after which the amounts of A and B become equal.


  • Question 15

    Figure shows a block diagram of a transmitter identify the boxes ‘X’ and ‘Y’ and write their functions.


  • Question 16

    Trace the path of a ray of light passing through a glass prism (ABC) as shown in the figure. If the refractive index of glass is , find out the value of the angle of emergence from the prism.


  • Question 17

    Write two characteristic features to distinguish between n-type and p-type semiconductors.


    How does a light emitting diode (LED) work? Give two advantages of LED’s over the conventional incandescent lamps.


  • Question 18

    A short bar magnet of magnetic moment 0.9 J/T is placed with its axis at 30° to a uniform magnetic field. It experiences a torque of 0.063 J.

    (i) Calculate the magnitude of the magnetic field.

    (ii) In which orientation will the bar magnet be in stable equilibrium in the magnetic field?


  • Question 19

    (a) State Gauss’s law in electrostatics.
    (b) A cube which each side ‘a’ is kept is an electric field given by (as is shown in the figure) where C is a positive dimensional constant. Find out

    (i) The electric flux through the cube, and

    (ii) The net charge inside the cube.


  • Question 20

    A capacitor of 200 pF is charged by a 300 V battery. The battery is then disconnected and the charge capacitor is connected to another uncharged capacitor of 100 pF. Calculate the difference between the final energy stored in the combined system and the initial energy stored in the single capacitor.



  • Question 21

    Draw a labelled diagram of a moving coil galvanometer and explain its working. What is the function of radial magnetic field inside the coil?



  • Question 22

    Define power of a lens. Write its units. Deduce the relation for two thin lenses kept in contact coaxially.



  • Question 23

    Write two characteristic features observed is photoelectric effect which supports the photon pictures of electromagnetic radiation.

    Draw a graph between the frequency of incident radiation (υ) and the maximum kinetic energy of the electrons emitted from the surface of a photosensitive material state clearly how this graph can be used to determine (i) Planck’s constant and (ii) work function of the material.



  • Question 24

    Define modulation index. Given its physical significance.

    For an amplitude modulated wave, the maximum amplitude is found to be 10 V while the minimum amplitude is 2 V. Determine the modulation index μ.



  • Question 25

    Two cells of emf E1, E2 and internal resistance r1 and r2 respectively are connected in parallel as shown in the figure.

    Deduce the expressions for

    (i) the equivalent e.m.f of the combination

    (ii) the equivalent resistance of the combination, and

    (iii) the potential difference between the point A and B.



  • Question 26

    Using Bohr’s postulates for hydrogen atom, show that the total energy (E) of the electron in the stationary states can be expressed as the sum of kinetic energy (K) and potential energy (U), where K = −2U. Hence deduce the expression for the total energy in the nth energy level of hydrogen atom.



  • Question 27

    Define a wavefront. Use Huygens’ geometrical construction to show the propagation of plane wavefront a rarer medium (1) to a denser medium (2) undergoing refraction.

    Hence derive Snell’s law of refraction.




    (a) Use Huygens’ geometrical construction to show the behavior of a plane wavefront.

    (i) Passing through a biconvex lens;

    (ii) Reflecting by a concave mirror.


    (b) When monochromatic light is incident on a surface separating two media, why does the refracted light have the same frequency as that of the incident light?



  • Question 28

    (a) What is the effect on the interference fringes to a Young’s double slit experiment when

    (i) the separation between the two slits is decreased?

    (ii) the width of a source slit is increased?

    (iii) the monochromatic source is replaced by a source of white light?

    Justify your answer in each case.

    (b) The intensity at the central maxima in Young’s double slit experimental set-up is I0. Show that the intensity at a point where the path difference is λ/3 is I0/4.


    (a) Obtain the conditions for the bright and dark fringes in diffraction pattern due to a single narrow slit illuminated by a monochromatic source.

    Explain clearly why the secondary maxima go on becoming weaker with increasing.

    (b) When the width of the slit is made double, how would this affect the size and intensity of the central diffraction band? Justify.


  • Question 29

    (a) Sate the principle on which AC generator works. Draw a labeled diagram and explain its working.

    (b) A conducting rod held horizontally along East- West direction is dropped from rest from a certain height near the Earth’s surface. Why should there be an induced emf across the end of the rod? Draw a plot showing the instantaneous variation of emf as a function of time from the instant it begins to fall.


    (a) State the principle of a step-up transformer. Explain, with the help of a labeled diagram, its working.

    (b) Describe briefly and two energy losses, giving the reasons for their occurrence in actual transformers.


  • Question 30

    (a) Draw the circuit for studying the input and output characteristics of and transistor in CE configuration. Show, how, from the output characteristics, the information about the current amplification factor (βac) can obtained.

    (b) Draw a plot of the transfer characteristics (V0 versus Vi) for a base-biased transistor in CE configuration. Show for which regions in the plot, the transistor can operate as a switch.


    (a) Why is a zener diode considered as a special purpose semiconductor diode?

    Draw the I − V characteristics of zener diode and explain briefly how reverse current suddenly increase at the breakdown voltage.

    Describe briefly with the help of a circuit diagram how a zener diode works to obtain a constant dc voltage from the unregulated dc output of a rectifier.

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