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Board Paper of Class 12-Humanities 2018 English Delhi(SET 1) - Solutions

General Instructions:
(i) All the questions are compulsory.
(ii) Your answer should be to the point, try to stick to the word limit given.

  • Question 1
    Read the passage given below :

    1. When you grow up in a place where it rains five months a year, wise elders help you to get acquainted with the rain early. They teach you that it is ignorant to think that it is the same rain falling every day. Oh no, the rain is always doing different things at different times. There is rain that is gentle, and there is also rain that falls too hard and damages the crops. Hence, the prayer for the sweet rain that helps the crops to grow.

    2. The monsoon in the Naga hills goes by the native name, khuthotei (which means the rice-growing season). It lasts from May to early or mid-October. The local residents firmly believe that Durga Puja in October announces the end of rain. After that, one might expect a couple of short winter showers, and the spring showers in March and April. Finally, comes the "big rain" in May; proper rainstorms accompanied by heart-stopping lightning and ear-splitting thunder. I have stood out in storms looking at lightning are across dark skies, a light-and-sound show that can go on for hours.

    3. This is the season when people use the word sezuo or süzu to refer to the week-long rains, when clothes don't dry and smell of mould, when fungus forms on the floor and when you can't see the moon or the stars because of the rainclouds. But you learn not to complain. Rain, after all, is the farmer's friend and brings food to the table. Rituals and festivals centre around the agricultural rhythm of life, which is the occupation of about 70 percent of the population.

    4. The wise learn to understand its ways. I grew up hearing my grandfather say. "It's very windy this year. We'll get good rain." If the windy season was short and weak, he worried there might not be enough rain for the crops. I learned the interconnectedness of the seasons from childhood, and marvelled at how the wind could bring rain. Another evening, many rainy seasons ago, my paternal aunt observed the new moon and worried, "Its legs are in the air, we're in for some heavy rain." She was right. That week, a storm cut off power lines and brought down trees and bamboos.

    5. Eskimos boast of having a hundred names for snow. Norwegians in the north can describe all kinds of snow by an equal amount of names : pudder, powder snow, wet snow, slaps, extra wet snow, tight snowfall, dry snow, and at least 95 more categories of snow. Likewise, in India we have names and names for rain. Some are common, some are passing into history.

    6. The rains are also called after flowering plants and people believe that the blossoming of those plants draws out rain. Once the monsoons set in, field work is carried out in earnest and the work of uprooting and transplanting paddy in flooded terrace fields is done. The months of hard labour are June, July and August. In August, as the phrogü plant begins to bloom, a rain will fall. this August rain, also called phrogü, is a sign that the time for cultivation is over. If any new grain seeds are sown, they may not sprout; even if they do sprout, they are not likely to bear grain. The rain acts as a kind of farmer's almanac.

    7. The urban population of school-goers and office-goers naturally dislikes the monsoon and its accompanying problems of landslides, muddy streets and periodic infections. For non-farmers, the month of September can be depressing, when the rainfall is incessant and the awareness persists that the monsoons will last out till October. One needs to have the heart of a farmer to remain grateful for the watery days, and be able to observe – from what seems to the inexperienced as a continuous downpour – the many kinds of rain. Some of the commonly known rain-weeks are named after the plants that alternately bloom in August and September. The native belief is that the flowers draw out the rain.
    8. Each rain period has a job to fulfil : October rain helps garlic bulbs to form, while kümünyo rain helps the rice bear grain. Without it, the ears of rice cannot form properly. End October is the most beautiful month in the Naga hills, as the fields turn gold and wild sunflowers bloom over the slopes, all heralding the harvest. Prayers go up for protecting the fields from storms, and the rains to retreat because the grain needs to stand in the sun and ripen. The cycle nears completion a few weeks before the harvest, and the rain does retreat so thoroughly from the reaped furrows that the earth quickly turns hard. The months of rain become a distant memory until it starts all over again.

    On the basis of your understanding of the above passage, complete the statements given below with the help of options that follow:
    a) The rains are called after flowering plants because
    (i) heavy rains kill plants.
    (ii) flowers grow in the rainy season.
    (iii) it is believed that the plants bring the rain.
    (iv) flowers grow all the year round.

    b) The rain is like a calendar for farmers because
    (i) it tells them when to sow and when to harvest.
    (ii) it tells them the birthdays of their children.
    (iii) each month has a time for plantation.
    (iv) different kinds of rain tell different things.

    c) People who live in cities don't like rain because
    (i) it brings mud and sickness with it.
    (ii) they are not bothered about the farmers.
    (iii) they don't like the plants that grow during the rain.
    (iv) going shopping becomes difficult.

    d) People pray asking the rain the retreat because
    (i) the fungus and mould need to dry.
    (ii) children don't get a chance to play.
    (iii) the crops need the sun and heat to ripen.
    (iv) they like to pray.

    Answer the following questions briefly:
    e) Why do the elders want you to understand the rains in the Naga hills?

    f) What does Durga Puja mean to the farmers of the Naga hills?

    g) What kind of rain is called sezuo?

    h) What is the occupation of more than half the population of the Naga hills?

    i) How is the heart of the farmer different from that of the city person?

    j) When does rain becomes a memory in the minds of the of the Naga hills?

    k) Find words from the passage which mean the same as the following:
    (i) flowering (para 6)
    (ii) nonstop (para 7)

  • Question 2
    2. Read the passage given below:

    1. Every morning Ravi gives his brain an extra boost. We're not talking about drinking strong cups of coffee or playing one of those mind-training video games advertised all over Facebook. "I jump onto my stationary bike and cycle for 45 minutes to work," says Ravi. "When I get to my desk, my brain is at peak activity for a few hours." After his mental focus comes to a halt later in the day, he starts it with another short spell of cycling to be able to run errands.

    2. Ride, work, ride, repeat. It's scientifically proven system that describes some unexpected benefits of cycling. In a recent study in the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, scientists found that people scored higher on tests of memory, reasoning, and planning after 30 minutes of spinning on a stationary bike than they did before they rode the bike. They also completed the tests faster after pedalling.

    3. Exercise is like fertilizer for your brain. All those hours spent on exercising your muscles, create rich capillary beds not only in leg and hip muscles, but also in your brain. More blood vessels in your brain and muscles mean more oxygen and nutrients to help them work. When you pedal, you also force more nerve cells to fire. The result: you double or triple the production of these cells – literally building your brain. You also release neurotransmitters (the messengers between your brain cells) so all those cells, new and old, can communicate with each other for better, faster functioning. 'That's a pretty profound benefit to cyclists.

    4. This kind of growth is especially important with each passing birthday, because as we age, our brains shrink and those connections weaken. Exercise restores and protects the brain cells. Neuroscientists say, "Adults who exercise display sharper memory skills, higher concentration levels, more fluid thinking, and greater problem-solving ability than those who are sedentary."

    5. Cycling also elevates your mood, relieves anxiety, increases stress resistance, and even banishes the blues. "Exercise works in the same way as psychotherapy and antidepressants in the treatment of depression, maybe better," says Dr. Manjari. A recent study analyzing 26 years of research finds that even some exercise – as little as 20 to 30 minutes a day – can prevent depression over the long term.

    6. Remember: although it's healthy, exercise itself is a stress, especially when you're just getting started or getting back into riding. When you first begin to exert yourself, your body releases a particular hormone to raise your heart  rate, blood pressure, and blood glucose levels, says Meher Ahluwalia, PhD, a professor of integrative physiology. As you get fitter, it takes a longer, harder ride to trigger that same response.
    On the basis of your understanding of the passage, complete the statements given below with the help of the options that follow:

    (a) Ravi gets his brain to work at peak level by
    (i) drinking three cups of coffee.
    (ii) playing games that need brain activity.
    (iii) cycling on a stationary bike.
    (iv) taking tablets to pump up his brain.

    (b) When nerve cells work during exercise then
    (i) the body experiences stress.
    (ii) the brain is strengthened by multiplying them.
    (iii) you start to lose your temper.
    (iv) your stationary cycle starts to beep.

    Answer the following questions briefly:
    (c) How does exercise help the brain?
    (d) Why does Ravi do a circuit of 'ride, work, ride'?
    (e) What is the work of neurotransmitters?
    (f) What benefits other than greater brain activity does one get from cycling?
    (g) Why is exercise so important for adults?
    (h) How is exercise itself a stress?
    (i) Find words from the passage which mean the same as the following:
    (i) manure (para 3)
    (ii) inactive (para 4)

  • Question 3
    Read the passage given below:

    Keeping cities clean is essential for keeping their residents healthy. Our health depends not just on personal hygiene and nutrition, but critically also on how clean we keep our cities and their surroundings. The spread of dengue and chikungunya are intimately linked to the deteriorating state of public health conditions in our cities.

    The good news is that waste management to keep cities clean is now getting attention through the Swachh Bharat Mission. However, much of the attention begins and stops with the brooms and the dustbins, extending at most to the collection and transportation of the mixed waste to some distant or not so distant place, preferably out of sight.

    The challenge of processing and treating the different streams of solid waste, and safe disposal of the residuals in scientific landfills, has received much less attention in municipal solid waste management than is expected from a health point of view.

    One of the problems is that instead of focusing on waste management for health, we have got sidetracked into "waste for energy". If only we were to begin by not mixing the biodegradable component of solid waste (close to 60 percent of the total) in our cities with the dry waste, and instead use this stream of waste for compositing and producing a gas called methane.

    City compost from biodegradable waste provides an alternative to farmyard manure (like cow-dung). It provides an opportunity to simultaneously clean up our cities and help improve agricultural productivity and quality of the soil. Organic manure or compost plays a very important role as a supplement to chemical fertilisers in enriching the nutrient-deficient soils. City compost can be the new player in the field.

    Benefits of compost on the farm are well-known. The water holding capacity of the soil which uses compost helps with drought-proofing, and the requirement of less water per crop is a welcome feature for a water-stressed future. By making the soil porous, use of compost also makes roots stronger and resistant to pests and decay. Farmers using compost, therefore, need less quantity of pesticides. There is also evidence to suggest that horticulture corps grown with compost have better flavour, size, colour and shelf-life.

    City compost has the additional advantage of being weed-free unlike farmyard manure which brings with it the seeds of undigested grasses and requires a substantial additional labour cost for weeding as the crops grow. City compost is also rich in organic carbon, and our soils are short in this.

    Farmers clearly recognize the value of city compost. If city waste was composted before making it available to the farmers for applying to the soil, cities would be cleaned up and the fields around them would be much more productive.

    Quite apart from cleaning up the cities of biodegradable waste, this would be a major and sustainable contribution to improving the health of our soil without further damage by excessive chemical inputs. What a marvellous change from waste to health!

    The good news is that some states are regularly laying plastic roads. Plastic roads will not only withstand future monsoon damage but will also solve a city's problem of disposing of non-recyclable plastic. It is clear that if the mountains of waste from our cities were to be recycled into road construction material, it would tackle the problem of managing waste while freeing up scarce land.

    (a) On the basis of your understanding of the above passage, make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary (minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it.

    (b) Write a summary of the passage in about 80 words. VIEW SOLUTION

  • Question 4
    You are Faiz/Falak Mazumdar living at 39, Udampur Colony, Shimla. You decide to hold a dinner party to congratulate your grandparents on their golden wedding anniversary. Draft a formal invitation in not more than 50 words to all family members to attend a grand dinner at home.

    You are Harish/Harshita of 12, Seva Nagar, Pune. You want to sell your flat as you are shifting to another city for work. Draft a suitable advertisement in not more than 50 words to be published in The Pune times under the classified columns. VIEW SOLUTION

  • Question 5
    You are Neeraj/Neeraja Shekhar, Principal, Vasant Public School, Pune. Your school has just started a music department. Write a letter to the Manager of Melody House, Pune, wholesale suppliers of musical instruments, placing an order for musical instruments for the school. Ask for a discount on the catalogue prices. (120 – 150 words)

    Bal Vidya Public School, Bhilai, urgently requires a post-graduate teacher to teach political science for which they have placed an advertisement in The Bhilai Express. You are Sanjay/Sanjana Sharma from 21, Vasant Marg, Bhilai. Draft a letter including a CV, applying for the advertised post. (120 – 150 words) VIEW SOLUTION

  • Question 6
    Your are Ali/Alia, Head girl/Head boy of your school. You are deeply disturbed by the rising cases of aggressive behaviour of students in your school. You decide to speak during the morning assembly about it. Write a speech on 'Indiscipline in Schools'. (150 – 200 words) VIEW SOLUTION

  • Question 7
    "Academic excellence is the only requirement for a successful career." Write a debate either for or against the motion. (120 – 150 words) VIEW SOLUTION

  • Question 8
    Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:       1 × 4 = 4
    '..... and clear rills
    That for themselves a cooling covert make
    "Gainst the hot season; the mid forest brake,
    Rich with the sprinkling of fair musk-rose blooms;
    (a) Identify the poem and the poet.
    (b) What is the role of the clear rills?
    (c) How has the mid forest brake become rich?
    (d) Name the figure of speech in 'cooling covert'.
    ...........On their slag heap, these children
    Wear skins peeped through by bones and spectacles of steel
    With mended glass, life bottle bits on stones.

    (a) Name the poem and the poet.
    (b) Explain: 'slag heap'.
    (c) What future awaits these children?
    (d) Name the figure of speech used in the third line. VIEW SOLUTION

  • Question 9
    Answer any four of the following questions in 30 - 40 words each:       3 × 4 = 12

    (a) What does the poet's smile in the poem, 'My Mother at Sixty-six' show?

    (b) Listening to them, I see two distinct worlds ... ." In the context of Mukesh, the bangle maker's son, which two worlds is Anees Jung referring to ?

    (c) Though the sharecroppers of Champaran received only one-fourth of the compensation, how can the Champaran struggle still be termed a huge success and victory?

    (d) Which article in McLeery's suitcase played perhaps the most significant role in Evans' escape and how?

    (e) Why does Derry’s mother not want him to go back to visit Mr. Lamb?

    (f) What considerations influenced the Tiger King to get married? VIEW SOLUTION

  • Question 10
    Answer the following question in 120 – 150 words :
    In one's approach to life one should be practical and not live in a world of dreams. How is Jansie's attitude different from that of Sophie?

    Fear is something that we must learn to overcome if we want to succeed in life. How did Douglas get over his fear of water? VIEW SOLUTION

  • Question 11
    Answer the following question in 120 – 150 words :

    At the end of the storytelling session, why does Jack consider himself  ‘caught in an ugly middle position’?
    It may take a long time for oppression to be resisted, but the seeds of rebellion are sowed early in life. How did Zitkala-Sa faced oppression as a child and how did she overcome it? VIEW SOLUTION

  • Question 12
    Answer the following question in 120 – 150 words:

    How does the perception and attitude of the villagers of Raveloe towards Silas Marner change from the beginning to the end of the novel ?

    How do you perceive Dr. Kemp based on his interaction with Griffin ? (The Invisible Man) VIEW SOLUTION

  • Question 13
    Answer the following question in 120 – 150 words: 

    How is Godfrey Cass different from his younger brother, Dunstan?

    “Misdirected and self-serving ambition essentially remains an exercise in futility.’ Describe Griffin's character in the light of the above statement. VIEW SOLUTION
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