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Page No 27:
What is meant by Management?
Management can be defined as a process of getting the work or the task done that is required for achieving the goals of an organisation in an efficient and effective manner. Process implies the functions of the management. That is, planning, organising, staffing, directing and controlling. On the other hand, effective implies completing the given task and work while, efficient means successfully completing the task with minimum possible cost. Thus, management can be defined as the process of planning, organising, staffing, directing and controlling such that the goals of the organisation are achieved successfully with minimum cost and resources.
Page No 27:
Name any two characteristics of management.
The following are the two characteristics of management.
i. Pervasive- Management is pervasive to all organisations across size, characteristics and region.
That is, all organisations whether large or small, working whether for economic, social or political interest and in any region need management. For example, a corporate firm requires management as does a non-profit organisation. Similarly, a hotel needs as much management as a hospital. In addition, management is practiced by organisations in all the countries and regions. The only difference lies in how it is practiced by different organisations in different regions based on their culture and traditions.
ii. Continuous Process- Management is a continuous process. That is, the various functions of management (planning, organising, directing, staffing and controlling) are performed simultaneously by the managers. However, the focus or the priority of the manager may differ from day to day. While on one day, the manger mat devote more time towards planning, while on other day more time may be spent on controlling.
Page No 27:
Identify and state the force that binds all the other functions of management.
Coordination is a binding force that unites the individuals’ efforts for the accomplishment of the common organisational goals. It is a process through which the activities of various departments and units are synchronized for the achievement of the organisation’s goals.
Page No 27:
List any two indicators of growth of an organisation.
Indicators of Growth of an organisation:
- Increase in sales volume
- Increase in the capital investment
Page No 27:
Indian Railways has launched a new broad gauge solar power train which is going to be a path breaking leap towards making trains greener and more environment friendly. The solar power DEMU (Diesel Electric Multiple Unit) has 6 trailer coaches and is expected to save about 21,000 liters of diesel and ensure a cost saving of Rs 12,00,000 per year. Name the objectives of management achieved by Indian Railways in the above case.
The Management objective achieved by the Indian Railways is Social objective.
Social objectives involve creation of benefit for the society. This involves creating economic value consistently for society as a whole.
Page No 28:
Ritu is the manager of the northern division of a large corporate house. At what level does she work in the organisation? What are the basic functions?
Ritu being the manager of the northern division of the organisation is in the middle-level management. She and other mangers like her act as a link between the top management and the operational management. Her main task is to oversee the implementation of the plans and policies formulated by the top management by directing and supervising the functions of the lower management.
The following are her basic functions.
(i) Interpreting the policies formulated by the top management.
(ii) To make sure that each department under her division has the required personnel and staff for carrying out the assigned work.
(iii) To assign the necessary duties to the persons working in various departments.
(iv) To encourage and motivate the personnel towards achieving the goals.
(v) Coordinating with the functions of other division heads.
Page No 28:
State the basic features of management as a profession.
The following are the basic features according to which management can be viewed as a profession.
i. Systemised Knowledge- Management is based on a systemised and well-defined body of knowledge comprising of principles and theories. This knowledge can be attained through various colleges, institutes and books.
ii. Professional Association- As every profession, management is also affiliated to a professional association that regulates the functions of the members. For example, in India the AIMA (All India Management Association) regulates the functioning of its member managers. However, there is no compulsion for every manager to be member of the association.
iii. Restriction to Entry- Although no specific qualifications or degrees are required to be a manger, however, professional knowledge in terms of management degrees and diplomas are preferred. To some extent, this restricts the entry of people in management as a profession.
iv. Code of Conduct- Every profession follows a particular code of conduct that acts as a guiding principle for the ethical behavior of its members. Through good management, the production takes place in an effective and efficient manner and quality goods and services are provided to the society at a fair price.
Page No 28:
Why is management considered to be a multi-dimensional concept?
Management is said to be multi-dimensional concept as it is a complex process involving not just one but various dimensions. There are three main dimensions of management.
i. Managing the Work- The performance of a definite work forms the basis of an organisation. With management, this work is interpreted in terms of the objectives and goals and how they are to be achieved.
ii. Managing the People- As the work is to be done by the people, managing the people is another important dimension of management. It involves dealing with the employees both as an individual and as groups or teams. With management, their strengths are utilised and weakness is worked upon so as to achieve the desired objectives.
iii. Managing the Operations- Every organisation involves a production process where the inputs are transformed into a product or a service. This production process requires continuous management.
Thus, we can say that management is a multi-faceted or multi-dimensional process covering various dimensions simultaneously.
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Company X is facing a lot of problems these days. It manufactures white goods like washing machines, microwave ovens, refrigerators and air conditioners. The company’s margins are under pressure and the profits and market share are declining. The production department blames marketing for not meeting sales targets and marketing blames production department for producing goods, which are not of good quality meeting customers' expectations. The finance department blames both production and marketing for declining return on investment and bad marketing.
State the quality of management that the company is lacking? Explain briefly. What steps should the company management take to bring the company back on track?
As per the given situation, the quality of management lacking in the organisation is coordination. This can be judged from the instance that various departments blame each other for the declining profits and market share of the company. Coordination refers to a path through which the group functions are linked up. It binds the people of the organisation and their activities to ensure a smooth functioning of the work. It is that force which unites the working and efforts of the people of the organisation towards the common objective of the organisation. It links the interrelated functions of management. Every organisation has various departments and sub-departments such as production, sales, finance, etc. Each of the departments works independently and with its own policies and objectives. In such a case, there may arise a conflict between the two departments. Coordination is needed to synchronise the activities of each department towards the achievement of common goals of the organisation. For instance, in the given situation, the various departments rather than blaming each other should work with each other in a coordinated manner and work collectively to improve company’s position with regard to profit margins and market share.
The following steps can be taken by the management to bring the company back on track.
1. The market should be studied carefully and the demand must be analysed such that the products can be modified accordingly.
2. The quality of the products must be improved.
3. The various products and their features should be marketed well.
4. Customer satisfaction should be worked upon through measures such as customer care services and feedback.
5. Each of the departments must be motivated to work collectively towards the common goals of the organisation rather than indulging in a blame game.
Page No 28:
Coordination is the essence of management. Do you agree? Give reasons.
Yes, Coordination is indeed the essence of management. By Coordination, we mean a path through which the group functions are linked up. It binds the people of the organisation and their activities to ensure a smooth functioning of the work. It is that force which unites the working and efforts of the people of the organisation towards the common objective of the organisation. Coordination links the interrelated functions of management. It is found at every level of management. It begins right from the stage of planning where goals and objectives are set for the organisation. Coordination is then required between the stage of planning and staffing so that right kind of people are hired for the execution of the plan. Next the functions of directing and controlling must also be coordinated with each other so as to realise the achievement of desired goals.
The following points highlight the importance of coordination in management.
(a) Harmonized Goals: In any organisation, growth is one of important goals. With growth of the organisation, its size increases and the number of personnel also increases. However, greater number of persons means more differences in thoughts and work habits that may lead to disharmony among people. Also, every individual will have his/her personal goals which may create hindrance in achieving the organisational goals. So, coordination is important so as to synchronize the personal and the overall goals in one direction.
(b) Alloted Work: Each task requires specialisation to give the requisite results. For this, every organisation hires expert for different tasks. Every specialist approaches the tasks in his own unique manner and is generally reluctant to take up any advice or suggestion form others. This may lead to diversion or conflict among various specialists in the organisation. Thus, coordination is required from an outside body such as the manager so as to integrate their opinions and thoughts.
(c) Interdependence of Divisions: An organisation has various departments and sub-departments such as production, sales, finance, etc. Every department works independently and with its own policies and objectives. For example, the sales department may want greater monetary incentives for its employees but the finance department may not approve of such incentives as it may lead to increase in the cost of the organisation. In this case, there arises a conflict between the two departments. Thus, here also coordination is needed to synchronise the activities of each department towards the achievement of common goals of the organisation.
Hence, we see that coordination is intrinsic and imperative for management. It is the 'essence' of management.
Page No 28:
Ashita and Lakshita are employees working in Dazzling enterprises dealing in costume jewellery. The firm secured an urgent order for 1,000 bracelets that were to be delivered within 4 days. They were assigned the responsibility of producing 500 bracelets each at a cost of Rs 100 per bracelet.
Ashita was able to produce the required number within the stipulated time at the cost of Rs 55,000 whereas, Lakshita was able to produce only 450 units at a cost of Rs 90 per unit. State whether Ashita and Lakshita are efficient and effective. Give reasons to justify your answer.
Ashita is effective, but not efficient. This is because Ashita completed the task on time but at a higher cost. Effectiveness implies completing a given work in the required time with a focus on the end results.
Whereas, Lakshita is neither efficient nor effective. This is because Lakshita did not complete the target at all. Even though she produced the units at a lower cost, but not achieving the target will make her inefficient and ineffective.
Page No 28:
Management is considered to be both an art and a science. Explain.
Management fulfills the criteria of both an art as well as a science. The following points explain the features of management as an art and as a science.
Management as an Art
Management satisfies the following criteria for it to be called an art.
- Existing Literature: All art forms such as music, dance presuppose a defined body of knowledge and literature. Similarly, management also has a lot of literature for theoretical knowledge and learning. Various theories and principles have been developed in management. Such as Henry Fayol's Principles of Management, Taylor’s Scientific Management Theory.
- Dynamic Application: Art is the personalised applicability of the existing knowledge. That is, each individual uses the basic knowledge in his own creative way. For example, every dance form has some basic steps. These steps are used by each dancer using his own creative manner. In a similar manner, managers use the available theories and principles as per the situation in their own unique manner. That is, the managers use their own creativity and imagination for the application of the knowledge of management.
- Practice and Creativity: Art involves practice and innovation. The artists use the existing literature as per his own creativity and innovation. For example, two writers can describe a given situation based on their unique interpretations. Similarly, in management, a manager applies the theories and principles of management to different situations as per his own creativity and imagination and some times even formulates new ways to address a situation.
Management as a Science
As a science, management fulfills the following criteria.
- Systematic Body of Knowledge: Science has a specified body of knowledge which is based on cause and effect relationship. Similarly management has its own body of theories and principles that are developed over years. In addition, similar to other disciplines of science, management also has its own vocabulary.
- Theories Based on Experimentation: In science the principles and theories are based on continuous observation and experimentation. In a same manner, the principles of management have also developed over several years based on repeated observations and experiments. However, as against science, in management no exact cause and effect relationship can be established. This is because management primarily deals with humans and human behavior. As human behavior is subject change, so, the outcome of these theories would also vary from one situation to another. Despite this, management fulfils this criterion of science to some extent as the scholars have been able to identify certain theories and principle that act as guidelines in management.
- Universal Validity: In science, the principles have universal validity. In management also the theories and principles are valid to some extent if not universal. Although the application of the theories and their outcomes vary from situation to situation, however they act as standards for actions in different situations. That is, these principles can be used for the basic training of the managers.
Page No 28:
Do you think management has the characteristics of a full fledged profession?
Although management does not satisfy all the criteria of a profession, however, it does posses some of the characteristics that qualify it to be a profession.
The following are the characteristics of management as a profession.
i. Systemised Knowledge- Management has a systemised and well-defined body of knowledge. It is based on several theories and principles that are developed over years with continuous experimentation and observation. The knowledge of management can be attained through various colleges, institutes and books. Management as a course is offered by many colleges and professional institutes. For example, in India, the Indian Institute of Management (IIM) is the premier institute of management.
ii. Restriction to Entry- Management satisfies this criterion only to some extent. As against other professions such a doctor or a lawyer, no specific qualification or degree are required to be a manager. That is, any person holding any degree or qualification can be a manager. However, the entry is restricted as persons with professional management degree or diploma are preferred.
iii. Professional Association- A professional has to be a member or should be associated with a statutory body which is responsible for stating the laws and authorities of that profession. For example, to practice Chartered Accountancy, a person has to be a member of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India. Similarly, management is also affiliated to a professional association that regulates the functions of the members. In India, the AIMA (All India Management Association) is an association for the managers. But, it is not requisite for managers to be a part of them.
iv. Code of Conduct: Any professional has to abide by the rules and regulations developed by the apex authority which regulates the functions of that profession. There is a set Code of Conduct which that professional has to follow for smooth functioning. In management also we have a specific Code of Conduct but, it is not obligatory for the managers to abide by them. Unlike profession where the members violating the rules are punished, no such penalizing is done in management if the managers do not obey the standards set by AIMA or AIPMA. However, alike other profession through management also the society is served. Through effective and efficient management of the organisation, quality products and services are provided at reasonable prices.
Thus, it can be said that to some extent management satisfies the criterion for it to be called a profession.
Page No 29:
''A successful enterprise has to achieve its goals effectively and efficiently.'' Explain.
Management is defined as a process of getting the work or the task done that is required for achieving the goals of an organisation in an efficient and effective manner. Here, the two key words- efficient and effective play an important role.
Effectiveness means completing the given work in the required time. In other words, it means doing the right things with focus on the end result. It is a very important aspect of management as it helps in reaching the set goals. Efficiency on the other hand, means completing the task with minimum possible costs and resources. Efficiency is said to increase if greater benefits are achieved using lesser resources or even if same benefits can be derived by cutting down on resources.
For an organisation, both effectiveness and efficiency play an equally important role in achieving the goals. While on one hand, being effective implies actually achieving the goals, on the other hand, being efficient would reduce the cost and thereby, increase profits. However, often an organisation has to compromise on one while achieving the other. That is, if the company focuses on effectiveness, it may have to compromise on efficiency and vice-versa. For example, suppose to complete a given task of production, the manager decides to hire more number of workers. This would mean that he will have to give more salary which in turn increases the total cost of production. In this case, the manager may complete the allotted task in time but the task would lack efficiency. On the other hand, if the manger continues to work with the available workers so as not to increase the cost, then this would result in the delay of the project. That is, in this case the manager compromises on effectiveness while achieving efficiency.
Hence, it is necessary to maintain a balance between effectiveness and efficiency. Undue emphasis on one without the other is of no good for the organisation.
Page No 29:
Management is a series of continuous interrelated functions. Comment.
In the words of 'Robert L. Trewelly and M. Gene Newport', management is defined as the process of planning, organising, actuating, and controlling an organisation’s operations in order to achieve coordination of the human and material resources essential in the effective and efficient attainment of objectives. Planning, organising, directing, staffing and controlling are the five basic functions of management that the manager has to perform simultaneously. In addition to this, these functions are interrelated and each one is a function of the other. That is, no function can be complete without the other ones. For example, until planning is not done, organising cannot take place. Similarly, until right kind of staffing is not there, then direction would not be successful.
A detailed explanation of the functions of management is as follows.
(a) Planning- Planning implies deciding what work is to be done, who is to do it and how it is to be done. That is, it implies the setting up of goals to be achieved and devising the means for achieving them effectively and efficiently. It is the stepping stone for management of any organisation. It is well said idiom that 'well planned is half done'. In addition, planning helps in predicting the situations and choosing the best out of various alternatives to deal with the situation.
(b) Organising- Once the plan is designed, the next step is organising. Organising implies indentifying what tasks and resources are required for the execution of the plan. Under organising the duties and tasks are grouped and allotted to different departments, authority is defined and a hierarchical structure is established in the organisation. Proper organisation leads to both effectiveness and efficiency in the organisation.
(c) Staffing- Any organisation requires specialised personnel for the accomplishment of the tasks. Staffing implies hiring the right kind of people with the required qualification for the work. Staffing is also known human resource function and includes hiring, training and development of the people.
(d) Directing- Directing is a very important function of a manager. It deals with guiding and steering the people working in the office. It includes motivating them in the right direction so that they can put in their best to achieve the goals. Directing has two important aspects- motivation and leadership. Motivation includes setting up of right environment for the work. Leadership on the other hand, implies getting the work done as per the directions of the leader. This is achieved by praising and criticising the work as and when required.
(e) Controlling- Once the above functions are done, it is necessary to control and check that the work is moving in the right direction. It involves measuring the actual work against the set standards and the policies. It also ensures that the work is up-to the mark and there is no diversion or errors from the set targets. Controlling also takes care that if there arises any error or discrepancy then, appropriate measures are taken to rectify it. This helps in finally achieving the goals in time, effectively and efficiently.
Thus, we can say that the functions of management are interdependent on each other and the manager performs these functions simultaneously.
Page No 29:
A company wants to modify its existing product in the market due to decreasing sales. You can imagine any product about which you are familiar. What decisions/steps should each level of management take to give effect to this decision?
In order to modify the existing product in the market, the following decisions/steps should be taken by each level of management.
Top Level Management
1. The top level managers must carefully analyse the market and plan the modification of the product accordingly.
2. It should work towards coordinating the activities of the various departments towards the common goal of modification of the product.
3. It must organise various resources that are required for the achievement of the objective of modification of the product.
Middle Level Management
1. The middle level managers must work towards implementing the plans framed by the top level management.
2. They must organise the personnel required for the implementing the plans and strategies.
3. The personnel must be assigned duties according to the plan and it must be ensured that the work is done according to it.
1. The operational level management must properly provide instructions to the workers and provide guidelines to them so as to work smoothly.
2. It must ensure quality of the work while minimising wastages.
3. It must motivate the workers to work towards the achievement of the common objectives.
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A firm plans in advance and has a sound organisation structure with efficient supervisory staff and control system but on several occasion it finds that plans are not being adhered to. It leads to confusion and duplication of work. Advise remedy.
The main aspect that needs to be worked upon in the organisation is coordination.
Quoting for coordination- On several occasion it finds that plans are not being adhered to. It leads to confusion and duplication of work.
Coordination means linking the functions of groups and individuals. It binds the activities of employees to ensure the smooth functioning of the organisation.
1. The various management functions must be linked with strong coordination so as to avoid any confusion in the work.
2. Every level of management—right from the planning stage, where the objectives are set must be coordinated with each other. Next it is required between the planning stage and the staffing stage, so that the right people are hired. Next, the functions of directing and controlling must also be coordinated with each other.
3. It must be ensured that interdepartmental conflicts are avoided. The wok of each of the departments, though independent, must be synchronised.
4. It must be ensured that proper direction as well as motivation is given to the workforce so as to avoid any chaos and duplication in the work.
5. It must be ensured that the personal goals of the individuals are synchronised with the overall objectives of the organisation and the plans are properly adhered to.
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