write the scope of sociology
Scope of educational Sociology-
There are two schools of thought with different viewpoints regarding scope and subject matter of educational sociology- 1-formal school and 2-synthetic school. According to formal school sociology was conceived to be a social science with a specifically defined field. This school had George Simmel, Ferdinand Tonnies, Alfred Vierkantt and Leopard Von Wiese as its main advocates. On the other hand the synthetic school with Durkheim, Hobhouse and Sorokin advocated a synthesis in form of coordination among all social sciences.
Formal school argued in favor of giving sociology a definite subject matter to make its clear picture. It emphasized upon the study of forms of social relationships and regarded sociology as independent.
According to Simmel sociology is a specific social science which describes, classifies, and analyses the forms of social relationships or in other words social interactions should be classified into various forms or types . Simmel argued that social interactions have various forms. This can be undersood with the help of one example. In a glass one can fill water ,milk or wine.the shape/form will remain same. Its content can not change the form of glass. So study of glass is important. Same way in Sociology one has to study only forms of relations.The study of content should be avoided. The study of contents will be done by other social science like economics ,political science etc.According to Simmel both things are different .(picture of glass can be added)
He carried out studies of such formal relationships as cooperation, competition, conflict etc.. He emphasized on the process of abstraction of these forms from human relationship which are common to diverse situations .Vierkantt maintained that sociology should be concerned with ultimate forms of mental or psychic relationship which knit the people together in a society. According to Von Wiese there are two kinds of fundamental social processes in human society. Firstly the associative process concerning contact, approach, adaptation etc and secondly disassociate processes like competition and conflict. Apart from these two processes a mixed form of the associative and non-associative also exists. Each of these processes has sub-classes which in totality give approximately 650 forms of human relationships. Sociology should confine itself to the discovery of the fundamental force of change and persistence and should abstain from a historical study of concrete societies. Tonnies divided societies into two categories namely Gemeinschaft (community) and Gesellschaft (association) on the basis of degree of intimacy among the members of the society. He has on the basis of forms of relationship tried to differentiate between community and society.Max Weber also makes out a definite field for sociology. According to him the aim of sociology is to interpret or understand social behaviour.But social behavior does not cover the whole field of human relations. Indeed not all human interactions are social. Sociology is concerned with the analysis and classification of types of social relationships. Max weber also supported his views by saying that one should restrict his study only up to social actions.