why is second ionization enthalpy greater than first ionization enthalpy?pls.explain
Second ionisation enthalpy is usually greater than the first ionisation energy because after removal of first electron, the remaining electrons are held more firmly by the nucleus and thus the atom has greater nuclear charge which makes the removal of second electron difficult and thus greater second ionisation energy.
The reason the second ionization energy is higher than the first relates to the attraction between the electrons and the nucleus. When one electron is removed from an atom, the neutral atom becomes positive. When one attempts to remove a second electron from a positive ion, there is more attraction between the electrons and the nucleus due to the extra proton. Thus, the second electron is harder to remove and the ionization requires more energy.