When and how was caste system on basis of jobs and education started ??
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Dear Student,

The following points may help you:

a. The origin of caste syste, can be traced back to vedic civilization, believed to have been started by ancient Aryans who divided the society ​into four castes such as Brahmana, Kshatriya, Vaisya and Shudra.
b. These divisions were based on the nature of work they performed, where Brahmins were the learned, Kshtriyas the warriors, Vasiya involved the merchants, landowners and the shudras the servants who served them
c. Such a system determined the social order and hierarchy in the society and also determined who is to be the learned section and would avail education.
It came to be associated with the social stratum in which one is born and is entirely based on birth.
d. Caste System  thus, has been an integral part of our society and has brought about worst kind discrimination and exclusion of the out caste group who were subjected to inhuman treatment and injustice. Shudras/Dalits were subjected to worst form of discrimination and were subjected to inhuman treatment.They were considered to be born in the lowest rung of the varna system whose task was defined to be that of laborers and serving the higher castes,  which determined the social order and caste hierarchy. 
e. It was believed since they were not  ​dvija or twice born they sought to pollute the varna system 
f. They were socially boycotted, not allowed to enter temple, not permitted to read Vedas, denied entry to public places, denied access to drinking water, on the whole they were considered untouchables.
g. The worst form of social practice followed in India was untouchability, which became evident in many forms.
h. Quota system existed even during the colonial period.
i. Even B.R Ambedkar demanded separate political representation for the Dalits.
j. Thus, after Independence while framing our constitution, there was a realisation to provide for 
reservations for the backward lower caste in jobs and education who were historically marginalised and discriminated.
k.In order to rectify the historical wrong reservation was introduced.Reservations are only corrective and defensive mechanism to protect minorities from the majorities.
l. It is important to note that reservations are governed by the constitution of India.



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The caste system in India is the paradigmatic ethnographic example of caste. It has origins in ancient India, and was transformed by various ruling elites in medieval, early-modern, and modern India, especially the Mughal Empire and the British Raj.[1][2][3][4] It is today the basis of educational and job reservations in India.[5] It consists of two different concepts, varna and jati, which may be regarded as different levels of analysis of this system.[6] The caste system as it exists today is thought to be the result of developments during the collapse of the Mughal era and the British colonial regime in India.[1][7] The collapse of the Mughal era saw the rise of powerful men who associated themselves with kings, priests and ascetics, affirming the regal and martial form of the caste ideal, and it also reshaped many apparently casteless social groups into differentiated caste communities.[8] The British Raj furthered this development, making rigid caste organisation a central mechanism of administration.[7] Between 1860 and 1920, the British segregated Indians by caste, granting administrative jobs and senior appointments only to the upper castes. Social unrest during the 1920s led to a change in this policy.[9] From then on, the colonial administration began a policy of positive discrimination by reserving a certain percentage of government jobs for the lower castes. Caste-based differences have also been practised in other regions and religions in the Indian subcontinent like Nepalese Buddhism,[10] Christianity, Islam, Judaism and Sikhism.[11][12][13] It has been challenged by many reformist Hindu movements,[14] Islam, Sikhism, Christianity,[11] and also by present-day Indian Buddhism.[15] New developments took place after India achieved independence, when the policy of caste-based reservation of jobs was formalised with lists of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. Since 1950, the country has enacted many laws and social initiatives to protect and improve the socioeconomic conditions of its lower caste population. These caste classifications for college admission quotas, job reservations and other affirmative action initiatives, according to the Supreme Court of India, are based on heredity and are not changeable.[16][a] Discrimination against lower castes is illegal in India under Article 15 of its constitution, and India tracks violence against Dalits nationwide.[17]
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