What is the difference between the two cases case 1) a charge brought near a neutral conductor and case 2) when charge is brought near a neutral insulator as in both the cases polarization takes place so what is the difference between the two.

So in the first  case , charge induction on conductor ,the induced charge accumulates on the surface of conductor and is uniform. This is the basic property of a conductor that whole of charge gets accumulates on the surface. But in second case in case of insulator there will be very minor charge induced and that will be non uniformly throughout whole body of the insulator. So this was the basic difference between polarization and induction of charge on both type of substance.

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