What do you understand about the term renaissance? Discuss in 250 words
Communication and governanceThe role of communication in governance and developmentCommunication for governance reformCommunication for social change and transformationMedia developmentSocial mediaAccess to information and its constraintsCommunication in fragile and conflict-affected states The role of communication in governance and developmentPage contentsCommunication for developmentCommunication and the governance agendaDoes communication matter for good governance?Communication structures and processesPublic opinion and the public sphereThe communication functions of governmentThe role of the media in democratic governanceEvidence of the impact of communication on governance and developmentFurther resourcesCommunication for developmentThe evolution of communication for development (C4D) has mirrored broader shifts in theories and models of economic and social development. For much of the post-World War II period, C4D was informed by the modernization paradigm, which sought to transform traditional societies into modern, Western societies through the transmission of attitudes, practices and technologies. Correspondingly, communication initiatives adopted a diffusion approach, which uses communication to carry out a transfer of information. This includes large-scale media campaigns, social marketing, dissemination of printed materials, education-entertainment and other forms of one-way transmission of information from the sender to the receiver.Proponents of diffusion theory recognised the limitations of mass media, however, in promoting sustained behavioral change. The theory also incorporated interpersonal communication: face-to-face communication that can either be one-on-one or in small groups. The objectives are to share information, respond to questions, and motivate specific behavioral practices. The belief is that while mass media allows for the learning of new ideas, interpersonal networks encourage the shift from knowledge to continued practice.Criticism of the modernization paradigm grew in the 1970s and 1980s. The one-way flow of information and communication from the North to the South was criticized alongside calls for greater representation of voices from the South. At the same time, there was a push for more participatory approaches to development. This triggered the emergence also of participatory development communication, which aims to empower the community towards collective decision-making and action through enhanced knowledge and skills to identify, prioritise and resolve problems and needs.Communication for development has thus come to be seen as a way to amplify voice, facilitate meaningful participation, and foster social change. The 2006 World Congress on Communication for Development defined C4D as a social process based on dialogue using a broad range of tools and methods. It is also about seeking change at different levels including listening, building trust, sharing knowledge and skills, building policies, debating and learning for sustained and meaningful change. Such two-way, horizontal approaches to communication include public hearings, debates, deliberations and stakeholder consultations, participatory radio and video, community-based theatre and story-telling, and web forums.Diffusion and participatory approaches have been increasingly integrated or adopted in parallel in C4D initiatives. Such combinations allow for agencies to reach broad audiences through large scale campaigns, while promoting local community development, empowerment and ownership through participation.Inagaki, R., 2007, Communicating the Impact of Communication for Development: Recent Trends in Empirical Research, World Bank, Washington DCHow can the use of communication in international assistance programmes be promoted and improved? This report argues that the communication community needs to: articulate more clearly why communication is essential for meeting the MDGs, demonstrate positive impacts of communication on development initiatives, and engage in more effective evaluation mechanisms. It aims to contribute to the promotion of communication in development by presenting evidence of positive impacts from a review of recent academic research in the field. It also discusses weak spots in the evidence and proposes areas of further research.Access full text: available onlineUNICEF, 2005, Strategic Communication: For Behaviour and Social Change in South Asia, Regional Office for South Asia, UNICEFHow has communication been used as a strategy to change knowledge, attitudes and behavior? How has it been used to facilitate broader social change? This paper profiles recent experiences in South Asia and elsewhere in applying various communication approaches for behavior and social change. It looks specifically at two key contemporary communication strategies: entertainment education; and interpersonal and participatory communication. It finds that communication strategies work best when integrated with various strategies for behavior change or behaviour development, social mobilization and advocacy; and when linked to other programme elements and service provision. It also finds that there is a need to extend communication strategies beyond individuals and households to include service providers, traditional and religious leaders, and decision makers to engender systemic social change.Access full text: available onlineThe Communication Initiative, FAO and World Bank, 2007, World Congress on Communication for Development: Lessons, Challenges, and the Way Forward, World Bank, Washington DCAccess full text: available onlineBack to contentsCommunication and the governance agendaWhilst the role of communication in supporting democratic development and stimulating economic growth is increasingly recognised in international policy statements, in practice communication remains a relatively under-prioritised area of the so-called good governance agenda. Some attribute this to a lack of robust evidence demonstrating communication's impact on governance, others argue it is more fundamentally a question of whether support to communication which typically encompasses the development of an independent media sector, improving access to information, and the strategic use of media and political communication tools to influence behavior and social change is a legitimate area for donor funding, given the often highly political nature of such interventions. What is clear is that the available research on the role of communication in governance is fragmented across multiple disciplines with often conflicting priorities (including political science, communication, media studies, and development studies). At the same time, there has been a dearth of practical guidance available to policymakers on understanding and using communication in governance reform.In spite of its relative under-prioritisation in development assistance, few dispute the power of communication, and in particular the catalytic role of the media, in influencing governance relationships and processes: communication is widely seen as vital for connecting states with society, facilitating inclusive political systems, giving voice to poor and marginalised groups, and enabling citizen participation and social accountability. Communication advocates also argue that the strategic use of political communication tools and methodologies can influence the attitudes, opinions and behaviour of key stakeholders and secure the political will necessary for reforms to be successful on the ground. With the recent rise of the fragile states agenda, there has been increased academic and donor interest in how communication can contribute to state-building by improving state citizen relationships and helping to (re)build social contracts in conflict-affected states.Nevertheless, legitimate questions remain regarding the role of donors in supporting communication in pursuit of good governance, not least what type of support is likely to be effective, what choices have to be made between supporting different types of media, and how to ensure interventions in this area are demand-led, sustainable and ultimately in the public interest; particularly the interests of the poor and marginalised. Overall, many studies conclude there is a need for better understanding of the circumstances under which communication, and in particular the media, can be a powerful force for positive, developmental change, and why in other cases it can be a more malign force capable of blocking pro-poor reform, engendering political violence, and sustaining undemocratic political systems.Wilson. M., Warnock, K., and Schoemaker, M., 2007, At the Heart of Change: The Role of Communication in Sustainable Development, Panos Institute, London Why is communication essential for sustainable development? This report argues that information, communication, the media and ICTs are powerful agents in giving voice to the poor. Open, participatory information and communication processes contribute to inclusive politics, better governance, a dynamic civil society, and to rapid, fairer economic growth. However, communication must be put at the service of the poor at community, national and international levels. A wide-ranging, holistic and strategic approach to information and communication challenges is needed, plus crucially political will to address them.Access full text: available onlineLines, K., 2009, Governance and the Media: A Survey of Policy Opinion, BBC World Service Trust, London How important is the media considered to be to governance and is it thought to be receiving the appropriate level of attention? Has the level of attention changed, and if so, are there any indicators that illustrate the shift? This report analyses current thinking and practice regarding the role of the media in relation to governance outcomes. It finds some evidence to support the perception of greater recognition by policymakers of the media's central role in development. However, there is an engagement gap between the value assigned to the media's role by policymakers and the practical provision made for it in development planning, thinking and spending.Access full text: available onlineDoes communication matter for good governance?A key aspect of governance is how citizens, leaders and public institutions relate to each other in order to make change happen. Without communication structures and processes which enable the two-way exchange of information between state and citizens, it is difficult to imagine how states can be responsive to public needs and expectations. Crucially, two-way communication allow citizens to monitor the states activities, to enter into dialogue with the state on issues that matter to them, and to influence political outcomes. Many political scientists believe this encourages the development of trust between state and society, and is a foundation of state legitimacy over the long-term.Communication and state capability, accountability and responsivenessOn a practical level, communication can be seen as essential to the development of state capability, accountability and responsiveness in the following ways:Capability: Consultation and dialogue between state and citizens can in principle improve public understanding of and support for government policies and encourage citizen ownership of reform. Without the support of the public, governments often lack the capability to get things done.Accountability: Access to information and government transparency are in theory vital for enabling citizens to monitor and hold government to account for its actions. There is significant evidence that transparency can reduce opportunities for corruption.Responsiveness: An informed and politically active electorate in theory strengthens the demand for governments to be accountable. There are several examples where communication processes (e.g. debate through the media, public information campaigns, social accountability mechanisms) have encouraged government responsiveness to citizens demands and resulted in better public services.The Communication Initiative, the Food and Agriculture Organisation of The United Nations, and the World Bank, 2007, Communication and Governance, in World Congress on Communication for Development: Lessons, Challenges, and the Way Forward, World Bank, Washington DC, pp33-59How can communication enhance good governance, participation and transparency? Is a free media essential for development? This chapter reports on some of the findings of the World Congress on Communication for Development. It argues that free flows of information and communication lie at the heart of good governance, transparency and accountability. Communication for development has evolved beyond traditional propaganda and marketing to a greater emphasis on two-way communication flows, dialogue, and participation.Access full text: available onlineCommGAP, 2011, 'The Contribution of Government Communication Capacity to Achieving Good Governance Outcomes', Communication for Governance and Accountability Program (CommGAP), World Bank, Washington, DCHow important is a government's capacity to communicate effectively with its constituents? What the role does communication play in good governance? This policy brief argues that good communication is a fundamental function of modern governance. Effective two-way communication between the government and the public strengthens legitimate public authority. This, in turn, increases the likelihood of attaining good governance outcomes.Access full text: available onlineCommunication structures and processesThe role of communication in governance can be broadly understood on two levels communication structures, and communication processes:Communication structures: Communication structures include free, plural, and independent media systems, robust civil society, and the legal and regulatory framework that enables or precludes the free flow of information from government to citizens and vice versa. These form the framework through which citizens and government can communicate and engage in dialogue. They are essential components of the so-called democratic public sphere (see below), and play an important role in forming public opinion (CommGAP, 2007).Communication processes: Communication processes can be one-way (e.g. providing information and conveying messages), or two-way (e.g. dialogue, deliberation). Communication has evolved away from its traditional focus on one-way communication for the purpose of propaganda, social marketing, awareness-raising, and influencing attitudes, opinions and behaviour, towards a much greater emphasis on more participatory and deliberative processes of dialogue.CommGAP, 2007, Communication for Good Governance, Communication for Governance and Accountability Program, World Bank, Washington DC How does communication support good governance? What can be learned from the experience of the World Banks Communication for Governance and Accountability Program? This briefing paper argues that communication contributes to good governance primarily in the area of influence. Skilful communication can increase stakeholders support for governance reform objectives, influencing opinion, attitude and behaviour change. Communication tools can also enhance citizen engagement in political systems. It is important to understand both communication processes and the framework for national dialogue in which these operate.Access full text: available onlinePublic opinion and the public sphereThe public sphere is the space where citizens come together to freely engage in dialogue and debate on issues which matter to their lives, and through that debate aim to influence government policy and bring about social change. A democratic public sphere relies on an active civil society, engaged citizens and a free and independent media. It also requires constitutionally guaranteed civil liberties and the right to freedom of opinion and assembly. In non-pluralist contexts, the state often controls the public sphere and has a monopoly on traditional mass media.The public sphere is important in governance not only because it can facilitate civic action and public participation in decision-making, but critically because it is also the space where public opinion is formed and articulated. Public opinion can be defined as the majority view on a public issue after it has been discussed in the public arena. Some argue the importance of public opinion in determining social and political change that is favourable to the poor has generally been overlooked in development studies. In political science, public opinion is widely accepted to be an important basis of power and legitimacy in other words, legitimate governments are those that listen and respond to public opinion.Odugbemi, S., 2008, Public Opinion, the Public Sphere, and Quality of Governance: An Exploration, in Governance Reform under Real World Conditions, eds. S. Odugbemi and T. Jacobson, World Bank, pp.15-37What is the best framework for achieving capable, responsive and accountable government in developing countries? How can political communities be changed to ensure that public resources go toward securing the general welfare? This study argues that the power of public opinion is a critical factor. Further, a democratic public sphere provides a vital structure through which good governance may be secured.Access full text: available onlinePolicy and technical briefs are also available:CommGAP, 2008, The Public Sphere, Policy Brief, Communication for Governance and Accountability Program, World Bank, Washington DCAccess full text: available onlineCommGAP, 2009, Changing Public Opinion Technical Brief, Communication for Governance and Accountability Program, World Bank, WashingtonAcess full text: available onlineSee also the Social Science Research Councils Public Sphere Guide.The communication functions of governmentProviding citizens with information on priorities, programmes and activities is a vital government function which underpins state-society relations. Governments in the developed world are acutely aware of the need to communicate effectively both to influence public opinion and maintain their legitimacy, and often construct elaborate structures of press offices, and information ministries to perform the communication function. But in many developing countries, governments lack communication capacity, and the development of the communication function is hampered by a combination of weak incentives (e.g. no culture of disclosure), lack of professional training and communication infrastructure, and lack of supportive legal framework (e.g. access to information laws). Institutional culture often plays an important role in shaping a governments approach to communication, but changing institutional culture takes time.CommGAP, 2009, The Contribution of Government Communication Capacity to Achieving Good Governance Outcomes, Conference Report, World Bank, Washington DCHow does government communication capacity contribute to good governance? What are the communication functions of government, and how can they be developed? This report from a one-day roundtable summarises discussions about the role of communication in government, cases of success and failure in government communication from around the world, and the promotion of this area of work in development. It highlights the importance of addressing incentives for government communication, the role of ethics, and the need to develop an appropriate enabling environment.Access full text: available onlineThe role of the media in democratic governanceThe importance of a free media in underpinning democratic development is often acknowledged, at least rhetorically, both in the academic governance literature and in the policy statements of development agencies. There is wide-ranging consensus around the idea that the evolution of a free and plural media is essential for holding government to account and enabling an informed citizenry. The media is often identified as a key institution which can either enable or block pro-poor reform. Nevertheless, communication advocates maintain that media is a relatively under-prioritised area of governance reform, and that development practitioners need to better understand and address the potentially catalytic role of the media whether in the form of print, TV, radio, or internet both in supporting or undermining democratic processes.In principle, free, independent and plural media can provide a critical check on state abuse of power or corruption, enable informed and inclusive public debate on issues of concern to poor people, and give greater public recognition to the perspectives of marginalised citizens. Whether reporting positive or negative news, news media exposure can contribute to political trust and engagement, and satisfaction with democracy. Where the media performs the roles of agenda-setter, watchdog and gatekeeper effectively, it can contribute to democratic governance and accountability in the following ways:Agenda-setter: The media can raise awareness of social problems, informing elected officials about public concerns and needs. A number of studies have demonstrated that the issues the media present as important are the same as those the public subsequently think are important.Watchdog: The news can provide a check on powerful sectors of society, including leaders within the private and public domains. Investigative journalism, in particular, can uncover corruption and monitor public interests. The role of the media as watchdog can be highly political in fragile conflict-affected states.Gatekeeper: The media can be a forum for the public debate and discussion of social issues and it can represent a plurality of perspectives, including those of poor and marginalised groups.In practice, however, limited empirical research has been done on how and under what conditions the media might be able to perform these roles effectively. Whilst generalised assumptions about the medias positive contribution to democracy are often made in the literature, a number of structural barriers often prevent them from living up to this ideal in practice. These barriers include state ownership or control, a prevailing environment of patrimonialism, media commercialisation, poor journalistic capacity and professional standards, and lack of citizen engagement with the media. Furthermore, many acknowledge that whilst the media may in principle be critical to public discourse, it cannot by itself guarantee improved state accountability or responsiveness.DFID, 2008, Media and Good Governance: A DFID Practice Paper, Department for International Development, London Why and how is the media a critical sector in shaping governance relationships? This paper summarises the key global media trends that are leading to changes in country-level governance. It also explains some of the incentives and disincentives driving the sector which can lead the media to play either a positive or negative role in strengthening democratic politics. Donors should better understand how media can enable or hinder citizen engagement, analyse the political implications of support to the media, and promote an enabling communication environment.Access full text: available onlineDeane, J., 2008, Why the Media Matters: the Relevance of the Media to Tackling Global Poverty, in Section 1 of Media Matters: Perspectives on Advancing Governance and Development from the Global Forum for Media Development, ed. M. Harvey, Internews Europe, pp.35-44How can the media address global poverty? This paper argues that the media has a critical role in poverty reduction, particularly by fostering country ownership of development strategies and the accountability of governments to their citizens. However, the media operates in a politically and economically hostile environment with only fragmented, inconsistent and short-term support from donors. It therefore remains largely peripheral to development action. The media can and must enable people with the most to win or lose from development debates to access, understand and contribute to them. Access full text: available onlineNorris, P. and Odugbemi, S., 2010, Assessing the Extent to Which the News Media Act as Watchdogs, Agenda Setters and Gatekeepers, ch. 15 in Public Sentinel: News Media and Governance Reform, ed. P. Norris, CommGAP, World Bank, Washington DC, pp. 379-394. This review finds that news media are important in furthering democratic governance, provided they are set up in a way that allows them to act as effective watchdogs, agenda setters and gatekeepers. Barriers to the fulfilment of these roles include restrictions on press freedom, market failures, lack of professional standards, weak civil society, and limitations in media literacy and public access to the media. Further research is required to fully determine the relationship between a free media and democratic governance.Access full text: available onlineNorris, P., 2008, The Role of the Free Press in Promoting Democratization, Good Governance and Human Development, in Section 2 of Media Matters: Perspectives on Advancing Governance and Development, ed. M. Harvey, Global Forum for Media Development, Internews Europe, pp.66-75 To what extent does free and independent media contribute to good governance and what are the consequences for human development? This chapter examines the results of a large-N cross-sectional comparison analysing the impact of press freedom on multiple indicators of democracy and good governance. The study seeks to test the hypothesis that where the media functions effectively as a watch-dog, a civic forum and an agenda-setter it helps to promote democracy, good governance and thus human development. Findings support claims that a free press is important, both intrinsically and instrumentally, as a major component of democracy and good governance.Access full text: available onlineNorris, P., 2011, Negative News, Ch. 9 in Democratic Deficit: Critical Citizens Revisited, Cambridge University Press, New YorkDoes a steady diet of negative news foster mistrust of government and political disenchantment? This chapter examines the impact of the media on public perceptions and argues that although plausible, the evidence for theories of negative news is inconclusive. In fact, regular exposure to news can improve engagement with democratic norms. Further, evidence from Britain and the USA shows that the impact of media coverage of political scandals is mixed. Considerable caution is needed in any claims regarding journalism's role in public dissatisfaction with government. There is no evidence supporting the 'video-malaise' theory that exposure to broadcast news damages people's democratic orientation. In fact, regular media exposure is positively related to democratic aspirations.Access full text: available onlineA technical brief is also available:CommGAP, 2009, Media Effects, Technical Brief, Communication for Governance and Accountability Program, World Bank, Washington DCAccess full text: available onlineEvidence of the impact of communication on governance and developmentAdvocates of communication acknowledge the need for more studies examining the impact (both positive and negative) of communication on democratic governance. To date, a handful of widely-cited empirical studies have found that open communication environments particularly free media and access to information are correlated with improved government responsiveness and accountability, lower levels of corruption, and economic development. It is widely acknowledged, however, that correlation does not prove causation, and caution is needed in drawing direct causal links between good communication structures and good governance.At the process level, there is some empirical and anecdotal evidence, largely contained in the political communication literature, of how communication can impact on peoples opinions and behavior; for example increasing people's individual knowledge of or participation in political systems, or their support for good governance.Coffey International Development, 2007, 'The Role of Communication in Governance: Detailed Analysis', Coffey International Development, LondonWhat does available evidence tell us about the role of communication initiatives in government capability, accountability, transparency and responsiveness? This paper analyses the positive and negative contributions of communication to governance. In theory, effective communication can help to promote good governance; however, a solid evidence base is lacking and a positive correlation should not be assumed. Existing studies suggest that it is not enough to create the means of communication; enabling factors must be in place so that voices can be heard and citizens can hold government to account.Access full text: available onlineInagaki, R., 2007, Communicating the Impact of Communication for Development: Recent Trends in Empirical Research, World Bank, Washington DCHow can the use of communication in international assistance programmes be promoted and improved? This report argues that the communication community needs to: articulate more clearly why communication is essential for meeting the MDGs, demonstrate positive impacts of communication on development initiatives, and engage in more effective evaluation mechanisms. It aims to contribute to the promotion of communication in development by presenting evidence of positive impacts from a review of recent academic research in the field. It also discusses weak spots in the evidence and proposes areas of further research.Access full text: available onlineMcloughlin, C., 2011, Impact of Communication for Development, Helpdesk Research Report, GSDRC, University of BirminghamDevelopment agencies are increasingly recognising the potential of communication for development (C4D) to improve development outcomes and to enhance the overall effectiveness of aid programmes. This coincides with growing evidence of the impact of C4D on the MDGs. This report provides some practical, tangible examples of where C4D activities have improved development outcomes or helped achieve development goals.Access full text: available onlineADB, 2011, Improving Project Success through Effective Communication and Participation, Learning Lessons, Independent Evaluation, Asian Development BankAccess full text: available onlinePublic sphere and deliberationDelli Carpini, M., 2004, Mediating Democratic Engagement: The Impact of Communications on Citizens Involvement in Political and Civic Life, in Handbook of Political Communication Research, ed. L. L. Kaid, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, New York, pp 395-434What evidence is there that communication influences democratic engagement? Is its influence positive or negative? This chapter reviews empirical research on the impact of the mass media on citizens' engagement in public life. Media use is positively correlated with many core elements of democratic engagement, such as citizens' political interest, knowledge, and participation. However, there is evidence that media use can also foster cynicism and disengagement. The magnitude of most effects demonstrated through empirical research in this area is small.Access full text: available onlineWantchekon, L., 2009, Can Informed Public Deliberation Overcome Clientelism?, New York University, New York How can new democracies restrain electoral clientelism? This study draws on evidence from the 2006 presidential elections in Benin. It shows that if a campaign strategy is based on town hall meetings and policy proposals informed by empirical research, the electorate feels they have greater understanding of policies and candidates. It also suggests that this approach could have positive effects on turnout and electoral support for the candidates involved. Access full text: available onlineMedia and developmentBandyopadhyay, S., 2009, Knowledge-Based Economic Development: Mass Media and the Weightless Economy', Discussion Paper no. 74, Distributional Analysis Research Programme, STICERD, London School of Economics and Political Science, London What is the impact of Information Communication Technologies (ICT) and mass media on economic growth and development? This paper analyses empirical data on mass media penetration, the spread of ICT and press freedom to assess their impact on corruption, inequality and poverty. The results provide strong evidence that higher mass media penetration (newspapers, radio and TV ownership) is associated with lower corruption. Further, lower poverty is robustly associated with higher newspaper circulation.Access full text: available onlineFreille, S., Emranul Haque, M., and Kneller, R., 2007, A Contribution to the Empirics of Press Freedom and Corruption, European Journal of Political Economy 23, pp. 838862 What is the relationship between press freedom and levels of corruption? This article reviews the evidence to date of the relationship between aggregate press freedom and corruption and performs its own analysis. It also tests the relationship among different forms of restrictions to press freedom using previously unexplored disaggregated data. Its findings support the prevailing view that restrictions to press freedom leads to higher corruption. Furthermore, both political and economic influences on the media are strongly and robustly related to corruption, while detrimental laws and regulations influencing the media are not. The paper concludes that the evidence indicates, although not conclusively, that the direction of causation runs from a freer press to lower corruption. Access full text: available onlineKeefer, P. and Khemani, S., 2011, Mass Media and Public Services: The Effect of Radio Access on Public Education in Benin, Policy Research Working Paper,Human Development and Public Services Team, World Bank, Washington DCDoes radio access improve public service provision? And if so, does it do so by increasing government accountability to citizens, or by persuading households to take advantage of publicly-provided services? Using data from Benin, this paper finds that literacy rates among school children are higher in villages exposed to signals from a larger number of community radio stations. However, government inputs into village schools and household knowledge of government education policies are no different in villages with greater access to community radio than in other villages. Instead,households with greater access are more likely to make financial investments in the education of their children.Access full text: available onlineInformation and transparencyBesley, T., and Burgess, R., 2002, The Political Economy of Government Responsiveness: Theory and Evidence from India, London School of Economics and Political Science, London What makes government responsive to citizens needs? This paper highlights the importance of information flows about policy actions. Having an informed and politically active electorate strengthens incentives for government responsiveness. Evidence from India shows that state governments are more responsive where newspaper circulation is higher and electoral accountability greater; there is a role for both democratic institutions and mass media in ensuring that citizens preferences are reflected in policy. Access full text: available onlineIslam, R., 2006, Does More Transparency Go Along With Better Governance?, Economics and Politics, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 121-167How are information flows linked to governance? This paper presents a new indicator, the transparency index, to measure the frequency with which governments update economic data made available to the public. It also uses the existence of a Freedom of Information Act as an indicator of transparency. Cross-country analysis shows that countries with better information flows, as measured by these indices, have better quality governance.Access full text: available onlineFor information on impact of communication on attitude and behaviour change, see the gender relations section of this guide.Further resourcesCommunication for Governance and Accountability Program (CommGAP)World Bank blog on People, Spaces, Deliberation: Exploring the interactions among public opinion, governance and the public sphereUNDP resources on Communication for DevelopmentUnited Nations Inter-agency Round Table on Communication for DevelopmentCommunication for Social ChangeThe Communication Initiative NetworkInternational Institute for Communication and Development (IICD)UNESCO: Communication and Information SectorWorld Bank: Development CommunicationFAO: Communication for DevelopmentMo Ibrahim FoundationSearch for Common GroundThe Policy and Research Programme on the Role of Media in Development is a five year programme financed by the Department for International Development (DFID) at the BBC World Service Trust.