What are overlapping social differences and cross cutting social differences??? What is the difference between them??

Overlapping refers to social difference in one sphere overlapping across another sphere to create social division. It is demonstrated by the poor economic condition of socially depressed communities. In such a situation, the social and economic conditions of a community may be said to be overlapping each other. E.g. the Dalits in India who have suffered from a history of social discrimination are traditionally among the economically weaker sections of society.

Cross cutting refers to social differences that exist irrespective of other form of differences. Thus, developed and under developed sections are equally likely to exist among all communities in a society. These differences are easier to accommodate while overlapping differences sharpen social divisions and create potential grounds for conflict.

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If social differences overlap each other it may lead to social division and if one social difference is given preference then people would begin to think that they belong to different communityIf social difference cross-cut each other we would find it difficult to find which group is against the other. These groups may have similar views on some issues and different on other issues.
USA: The blacks are discriminated by the whites due to their poverty (racial discrimination).
INDIA: Dalits are discriminated as they are landless and poor.
NETHERLAND: The main religion here is Christianity. They have division as catholics and protestants. Here class and religion cross-cut each other. Neither of them are rich or poor and do not have conflict between them.
It always leads to social division and disintegration of the country.It encourages diversity and accommodates unity.

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