State the function of sphincter muscles in the alimentary canal.

Solution:

Sphincter muscles present in the alimentary canal are oesophageal sphincter muscles at lower and upper end of oesophagus, pylorus sphincter muscle, ileocecal sphincter muscle, sphincter of Oddi.

Oesophageal sphincter muscles- mediate the closing of oesophagus when food is not present, do not allow the passed food material to move backward, do not allow the content of stomach to move to the oesophagus.

Pylorus sphincter muscle- do not allow the food material to enter into stomach from duodenum.

Ileocecal sphincter muscle- do not allow the colonic content to move back into the ileum.

Sphincter of Oddi- control the secretions from liver, pancreas and gall bladder.
 
Gastric sphincter is located after the stomach and before duodenum.
Anal sphincter is located at the end of anus.
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