Name and define the structure of plant cell


A plant cell is a eukaryotic cell enclosed by a rigid cell wall, cell membrane and a prominent nucleus. Cell wall is present outside the cell membrane and is composed of cellulose. Cytoplasm is the semi liquid substance present inside the cell bound by the cell membrane. A large vacuole, several cell organelles like mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, plastids, ribosome, lysosome, golgi complex and several other organelles are present.

Detailed description of organelles are given below:

Endoplasmic Reticulum – These are tube like structures present in the cells. There are two types of endoplasmic reticulum – rough and smooth. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum participates in protein synthesis whereas Smooth endoplasmic Reticulum takes part in lipid synthesis.

Ribosome – These are pear shaped organelles, without any membrane. They help in protein synthesis.

Lysosome – Lysosomes are spherical, membrane bound organelles that contain enzymes to breakdown protein, carbohydrates or fats. They help in digestion of food materials. If the enzymes present inside lysosomes come out, it may digest the cell also. Therefore they are also known as ‘suicidal bag’.

Cell wall – this is the outer most covering of a plant cell. Cell wall is made up of mostly cellulose which is a carbohydrate. It provides mechanical strength and support to the cell.

Vacuoles – Vacuoles are fluid filled bag like structure covered by membrane. They are present inside the cytoplasm of the cell. The fluid inside vacuole contains carbohydrates, amino acids, pigments and waste matters.

Chromosomes – Chromosomes are genetic materials present inside the nucleus of cells. Chromosome carries genetic information.

Mitochondria – Mitochondria are spherical or long thread like organelles that generate energy required for various function in the cell. They are the sites for cellular respiration. Mitochondria are also known as powerhouse of the cell.

Plasma membrane – Plasma membrane is a covering around a cell present just beneath cell wall. It is made up of protein and lipids and is also known as cell membrane.


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