Management is a series of continuous interrelated functions. Comment.

In the words of 'Robert L. Trewelly and M. Gene Newport', management is defined as the process of planning, organising, actuating, and controlling an organisation’s operations in order to achieve coordination of the human and material resources essential in the effective and efficient attainment of objectives. Planning, organising, directing, staffing and controlling are the five basic functions of management that the manager has to perform simultaneously. In addition to this, these functions are interrelated and each one is a function of the other. That is, no function can be complete without the other ones. For example, until planning is not done, organising cannot take place. Similarly, until right kind of staffing is not there, then direction would not be successful. 

A detailed explanation of the functions of management is as follows.

(a) Planning- Planning implies deciding what work is to be done, who is to do it and how it is to be done. That is, it implies the setting up of goals to be achieved and devising the means for achieving them effectively and efficiently. It is the stepping stone for management of any organisation. It is well said idiom that 'well planned is half done'. In addition, planning helps in predicting the situations and choosing the best out of various alternatives to deal with the situation.

(b) Organising- Once the plan is designed, the next step is organising. Organising implies indentifying what tasks and resources are required for the execution of the plan. Under organising the duties and tasks are grouped and allotted to different departments, authority is defined and a hierarchical structure is established in the organisation. Proper organisation leads to both effectiveness and efficiency in the organisation. 

(c) Staffing- Any organisation requires specialised personnel for the accomplishment of the tasks. Staffing implies hiring the right kind of people with the required qualification for the work. Staffing is also known human resource function and includes  hiring, training and development of the people. 

(d) Directing- Directing is a very important function of a manager. It deals with guiding and steering the people working in the office. It includes motivating them in the right direction so that they can put in their best to achieve the goals. Directing has two important aspects- motivation and leadership. Motivation includes setting up of right environment for the work. Leadership on the other hand, implies getting the work done as per the directions of the leader. This is achieved by praising and criticising the work as and when required. 

(e) Controlling- Once the above functions are done, it is necessary to control and check that the work is moving in the right direction. It involves measuring the actual work against the set standards and the policies. It also ensures that the work is up-to the mark and there is no diversion or errors from the set targets. Controlling also takes care that if there arises any error or discrepancy then, appropriate measures are taken to rectify it. This helps in finally achieving the goals in time, effectively and efficiently.

Thus, we can say that the functions of management are interdependent on each other and the manager performs these functions simultaneously.

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