Is cooperation alwaysvoluntary or is it enforced? If enforced, is it sanctions or is thestrength of norms that ensure cooperation? Discuss with examples.

According to KarlMarx’s conflict perspective, cooperation is enforced and notvoluntary. The enforcement of cooperation takes place because of theexistence of the class system. The strength of norms or the ‘socialpower’ compels the workers to work because of the alien forcewhich exists outside them. It is caused by the division of labour.For this, Marx gave an example of a worker in a factory, whoundergoes the process of ‘alienation’ and loses controlover the products of his/her labour because he/she follows themonotonous routine every time. Also, compared to the conditions of afactory worker who works in a cooperative environment with a workerwho works for himself, it is found that the independent worker ishappier.

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