Inyour view how successful have popular struggles been in making thestate responsive to the social and environmental costs ofdevelopment? Discuss with examples.

Popularstruggles like the Narmada Bachao Andolan and the Chipko movementhave played a major role in making the state responsive to the socialand environmental costs of development.

TheNarmada Bachao Aandolan has stopped the government for the time beingfrom raising the height of Sardar Sarovar dam on River Narmada. Thisproject was harmful for the environment and social life of thepeople. A large forest was submerged during the construction and manypeople were displaced. The activists have also been trying topersuade the government to offer more meaningful rehabilitationpackages to the displaced people.

TheChipko Movement against deforestation was successful in Uttrakhand.The people hugged the trees and stopped the contractors from cuttingthem down. This was basically an environmental movement but thelivelihood of the local people also depended on these forests. Thus,it created awareness all over the country about the actions of thegovernment and forced the state to become more responsive.

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