In your view how successful have popular struggles been in making the state responsive to the social and environmental costs of development? Discuss with examples.
Popular struggles like the Narmada Bachao Andolan and the Chipko movement have played a major role in making the state responsive to the social and environmental costs of development.
The Narmada Bachao Aandolan has stopped the government for the time being from raising the height of Sardar Sarovar dam on River Narmada. This project was harmful for the environment and social life of the people. A large forest was submerged during the construction and many people were displaced. The activists have also been trying to persuade the government to offer more meaningful rehabilitation packages to the displaced people.
The Chipko Movement against deforestation was successful in Uttrakhand. The people hugged the trees and stopped the contractors from cutting them down. This was basically an environmental movement but the livelihood of the local people also depended on these forests. Thus, it created awareness all over the country about the actions of the government and forced the state to become more responsive.