How to find out the geometry of ClO4-

Structure of molecule depends on its hybridization and lone pares of central atom.

  • Hybridization of any molecule can be determined by the following formula:

H=1/2{ V + X - C + A}

V=no. of valence electrons in central atom

X=no. of monovalent atoms around the central atom

C= +ve charge on cation

A= -ve charge on anion

If H= 2, it means hybridization is sp.

If H= 3, it means hybridization is sp2.

If H= 4, it means hybridization is sp3.



Now the given molecule is ClO4-.

Here central atom is Cl.

V= 7

X= 0

C= 0

A= 1

H=1/2{6 + 0 - 0 + 1) = 4

So hybridization of Cl in ClO4 is sp3.


  •  There is no lone pair on the Cl atom.

Hence there are 4 sp3 hybridized molecular orbitals present at 4 corners of a tetrahedron to give the molecule tetrahedral geometry.




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