how does a municipal corporation functions
Function of Municipal Bodies
In Trinidad, Local Government authorities are responsible for:
- Collection and disposal of garbage
- Cleaning of cesspits and septic tanks
- Construction and maintenance of roads (other than main roads and highways) including the provision and maintenance of the related drains, bridges, side-walks, and street-signs
- Provision and maintenance of minor water courses
- Provision, maintenance and control of public cemeteries and cremation facilities
- Provision, maintenance and control of public recreation grounds, parks, and squares
- Provision and maintenance and regulation of public retail markets and slaughter-houses
- Inspection of buildings and building sites
- Approval of building and housing-development plans
- Cleaning of public spaces
- Insect vector, rodent and canine control
- Disaster management
- Distribution of truck-borne water, in the dry season, to areas without pipelines
- Assessment and collection of land and building taxes (in cities and boroughs at present)
- Establishing municipal Bye-laws and policies to regulate their functions
- Enforcing municipal Bye-laws through the Municipal police
Each municipal corporation is required to have a Municipal Police Service, members of which are given precepts to:
- Enforce the bye-laws and other regulations of the Municipal Corporation
- Monitor and carry out general surveillance of the Corporation's property, assets and personnel
- Provide escort services, as well as, security at Council meetings, official functions and special events
- Detect and prevent socially deviant behaviour such as illegal street vending, vandalism, and erection of illegal structures
- Maintain domestic peace and tranquility and prevent crime in the municipality in collaboration with the central police service
- Undertake community policing and related social services pertaining to poverty eradication, youth training and development, counseling and family rehabilitation
- Arrest, execute warrants, detain, and formally charge offenders of the law
- Gather intelligence to prevent and detect crime, and to formulate security policies for the Municipal Corporation.
Apart from the above, Municipal Corporations in the cities and boroughs also provide the following services:
- Collection of dues and charges (Market and abattoir dues)
- Issuing of food badges and Vending licenses
Municipal Corporation has to provide and maintain sanitation, health services, water supply, electricity, roads, markets, education etc.
Sources of Income-
The sources of income are mainly two- taxes that the .corporation can levy, like octoroons, water tax, property tax on education, etc. and grants from the government.
India is a very vast country. To manage the affairs of the whole country properly it has been divided into 28 states and seven union Tories. Again each state is divided into several districts. The district is the most important unit of Indian Administration. The co Charge of the District Administration is known as district collector or deputy commissioner or district magistrate.
The district administration is responsible for the following
Supervising the work of Panchayati Raj. V Providifing civic amenities. Relief work; Collection of land revenue and keeping land records.
Police Organisation in the district-
The department which implements the law and takes action against those who break the law is called police department. Each district is headed by a police officer known as Superintendent of Police (S.P.). Each district is divided several police circles and deputy superintendent of police heads each circle. Every circle has several than as or police stations. Each police station is under an inspector of Police, Sub-inspectors, Assistant sub. inspectors, head constables and constables work under the inspect. of police. Every village has a Choukidar who reports all criminal actives to the nearest police station.
Collection of land revenue in the district-
Maintaining all the land records and collecting land revenue from the farmers is one of the important function of the district magistrate. The district is divided into several levels which are given below.
Some important district officials who work under the District Magistrate are following-
(i) District Jail Superintendent-
Each district has jails to hold prisoners. The district jail functions under the district jail superintendent.
(ii) The Chief Medical Officer-
The chief medical officer or the civil surgeon leads the public health services in the district.
(iii) District Education Officer-
This officer heads the education department in the district.
(iv) Executive Engineer-
Executive Engineer heads the Public works department in a district.
Judicial Administration in the District-
To administer justice, a judicial administration is set up in the district. There are types of litigations (cases)-civil and criminal. The civil cases a decided by the civil courts while the criminal cases are decided by criminal courts. Civil cases are related with property and dispute while the criminal cases are related with theft, criminal assaults and murders.
The Court of District Judge is the highest court in the which supervises the functions of civil as well as criminal court.
The court of the civil judge and court of Munsee work under the District Judge.Criminal Courts-
The court of the session judge is the highest criminal court in a district. The District Judge usually is held the court and is, therefore, called the District and Session Judge. Chief Metropolitan Magistrate, First Class Judicial Magistrate and Second Judicial Magistrate function under the session judge.
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