Explain structure and function of an electroscope with help of a diagram?

Solution:

An electroscope is a device that is used for detecting whether an object is charged or uncharged. It also determines the type of charge.

As you can see from the picture there is a metal (conductor knob) and a metal rod attached to this knob. Gold leaves are at the bottom of the rod. Electroscopes are placed in a glass case to diminish the effects of wind and ions in the air.

In general an electroscope works on the principle of charging by induction. When we bring a charged object near the electroscope metal knob, opposite charge gets induced in the metal knob, and from there to the gold leaf. On acquiring the charge, the gold leaf separates out.

If we charge it, because of the fact that same charges repel each other, leaves of the electroscope rises. Amount of the distance between the leaves depends on the amount of charges electroscope has. 

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