dear meritnation experts ,

1.when do chloroplasts align themselves along walls of  mesophyll cells?

when  are they perpendicular to  incident light ?

2.where are the protons and oxygen formed during spliting of water likely to be released ?lumen or outside the membrane ?

3.calling biosynthetic phase is a misnomer.comment

4.answers to table13.1 on page221 in biology class 11 ncert textbook.


  •  Chloroplasts allign themselves along the mesophyll walls  during photosynthesis  in order to get maximum quantity of incident light.
  • Chloroplasts allign themselves with their flat surfaces perpendicular to walls under  very high light intensities in order to get only require quantity of incident light.


  • The protons and oxygen formed during spliting of water are released  in the thylakoid lumen. 

It results in increase in the number of hydrogen protons in the thylakoid space that causes proton gradient.  Down flow of protons from high to low concentration along gradient through ATPase complex provides the energy that allows an ATP synthase enzyme to produce ATP .


  • Calling biosynthetic phase  as the dark reaction is a misnomer (a word or term that suggests a meaning that is known to be wrong) because biosynthetic phase cannot occur for long if light phase is absent. Biosynthetic phase depends on the products of light reaction ATP and NADPH.

 After light becomes unavailable, the biosynthetic process continues for some time, and then stops. If then, light is  made available, the synthesis starts again. So, biosynthetic should not be totally considered as the dark reaction.


Try to find out the answer of last question by yourself.


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