Controlling moves from downward to upward whereas planning moves from top to bottom. Discuss
It is often said that controlling moves from downward to upward (backward looking function) whereas planning moves from top to bottom (forward looking function). However, this statement is only partially true. Though planning is a futuristic concept, dealing with preparing plans and setting standards in advance, it is also based on past experiences and actions initiated in the controlling function. Thus, planning besides being forward looking, is backward looking as well. Similarly, although controlling is based on the past actions and deals with comparing the current actions with the pre-defined standards, it also focuses on taking the corrective actions to improve the future performance of the management. Thus, controlling besides looking back, also looks forward.