Controlling function of an organisation is

(a) Forward looking

(b) Backward looking

(c) Forward as well as backward looking

(d) None of the above

Controlling as an essential part of management is forward as well as backward looking. It is a backward looking function in the sense that it assesses the work done and analyses deviations from the set standards. Based on these deviations it attempts to take the required corrective measures. Thus, it guides the future course of action and aims at improving the future performance. In this sense, it is also a forward looking function. Hence, we can say that controlling is forward as well as backward looking function. 

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