Can you find illustrative examples of conflict drawn from Indian society? Discuss the causes that led to conflict in each instance.

The following are some examples of conflicts that have occurred in the Indian society:

(i) Caste-based conflict - This type of conflict is based upon the institution of caste and it has led to violent clashes between the traditionally superior and inferior communities. Education has spread awareness about the oppression caused by this system. However, a lot needs to be done to eradicate the prejudice of caste.

(ii) The Kashmir conflict - India has officially stated that it believes that Kashmir is an integral part of India. Pakistan says that Kashmir is a disputed territory, whose final status must be determined by the people of Kashmir. China states that Aksai Chin is a part of China. Certain Kashmiri independent groups believe that Kashmir should be independent of both, India and Pakistan.

This was a territorial conflict.

(i) The Godhra incident - On February 27, 2002 at Godhra city in the state of Gujarat, the Sabarmati train was forcibly stopped and attacked by a large Muslim mob. As a result, 58 Hindu pilgrims — mostly women, children and seniors, returning from the holy city of Ayodhya— were burned alive. The attack prompted retaliatory massacres against Muslims on a large scale, in which 790 Muslims and 254 Hindus were killed.

This conflict was based on religion.

(i) The Kaveri river conflict - It is a conflict between the states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu over the sharing of water of the river Kaveri. A dam was built over the portion of river that lies upstream in Karnataka, leading to depletion of water resources for the farmers in Tamil Nadu. A central tribunal, later, allotted more water to Tamil Nadu and allowed it to construct the Mettur dam as well. This led to large scale riots in Karnataka.

This conflict was based on sharing of resources.

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