can u give a summary on history chapter -Colonialism and the city
What Happened to Cities Under Colonial Rule?
Indian cities did not expand as rapidly as the European cities in the
In the late eighteenth century, Calcutta, Madras and Bombay became the
During the same time, smaller cities declined. Old trading centres and
ports could not survive when the flow of trade moved to new centres.
Cities such as Surat, Machilipatnam and Seringapatam were de-urbanised
during the nineteenth century.
The historic imperial city of Delhi was rebuilt as the capital of British India
The Making of New Delhi
After defeating the Marathas in 1803, the British gained control of Delhi.
The city developed only when Delhi became the capital of British India in
Demolishing a Past
In the first half of the nineteenth century in Delhi, the British lived with
wealthy Indians in the Walled City.
The Delhi College was established in 1792. This led to a great
intellectual flowering in science and humanity. The period from 1830 to
1857 was referred to as the period of Delhi Renaissance.
After the revolt of 1857, everything changed.
The British wanted the people of Delhi to forget about their Mughal
For security reasons, they got rid of the gardens, mosques and pavilions
which surrounded the Fort.
One-third of the city was demolished and the canals were filled up.
When the western walls of Shahjahanabad were broken for the railways
and expansion, the British shifted to the sprawling Civil Lines area away
from the Indians in the Walled City.
Planning a New Capital
A Durbar for acknowledging Queen Victoria as the Empress of India was
organized by Viceroy Lytton in 1877. The British decided to celebrate British power with pomp and show in the
city of Delhi.
When King George V was crowned in England in 1911, a Durbar was held
in Delhi for celebrating the occasion.
The decision of shifting the capital of India from Calcutta to Delhi was
announced at this Durbar.
Edward Lutyens and Herbert Baker were the two architects who were
called for designing New Delhi and its buildings.
It took 20 years for building the city of New Delhi. The main idea was to
build a city that was in stark contrast to Shahjahanabad.
In contrast to the chaos of the Old Delhi, the architects wanted New Delhi
to represent a sense of law and order. It had to be clean and hygienic and
free from diseases.
The Decline of Havelis
In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the Mughal aristocracy lived
in grand mansions called havelis. Havelis were large, walled compounds
with mansions, courtyards and fountains.
A haveli housed many families which included housing for the maids,
accountants, clerks, drivers, etc.
During the British rule, it was difficult for the Mughal noblemen to
maintain their havelis. They were therefore, subdivided and sold.
The front portions of most of the havelis became shops and later many fell
into disuse and decay.