2.what are the materialistic issues that went into the making of sociology?
- The Industrial Revolution brought with a new dynamic economic system i.e capitalism which brought with it new attitudes. Entrepreneurs were on a sustained, systematic pursuit for profit and goods, services and labour were considered commodities whose uses were determined by rational calculation.
- The revolution brought a degradation of labour and work was taken away from the protective guild of the community and village.This meant a decline for the skilled craftsmen and the common labourers.
- The factory and it's mechanised division of labour were considered as deliberate attempts to destroy the craftsmen and labourers. For Marx,although the system was oppressive, it was potentially liberating.
- The old Economy was completely replaced by the new one with England at it's centre. The Industrial revolution was characterised by the the scientific development which helped harness new power sources and the organisation of labour in manners in a scale not seen before.
- Urban cities grew in manners not seen in previous towns.Urban cities were characterised by the soot and grime of factories and the overcrowded slums of the industrial working class.
- The factory introduced clock time as the basis for work and clock time and calendar was used to determine the work time. Earlier work time was determined by period of daylight, breaks between tasks and social constraints etc
- The factory and clock introduced a synchronisation of labour. Work began punctually and continued at a steady pace for fixed hours. The clock introduced a sense of urgency. For both the employer and the employee, time is now money; it is not passed, it is spent.